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Chanforan C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Chanforan C.,University of Avignon | Chanforan C.,Center Technique Of La Conservation Des Produits Agricoles | Loonis M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 7 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

The effect of industrial processing was investigated on the stability of tomato carotenoids, phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid. A deep insight in the processed products allowed the quantification of caffeic acid hexosides, which are far more important contributors than the well-known chlorogenic acid, dicaffeoylquinic acids and quercetin oligosaccharides (new feruloyl, sinapoyl and syringoyl derivatives of quercetin apiosylrhamnosylglucoside). (E)-β-Carotene and (E)-lycopene were also quantified along with different mono- and di-(Z)-isomers of lycopene which were tentatively assigned. Processing of fresh tomato into paste had an overall positive effect on the contents in phenolic compounds, no effect on lycopene and a slight and high detrimental effect on β-carotene and ascorbic acid, respectively. The balance between the increase in tomato matrix extractability and microconstituent catabolism was further observed in two contrasted transformations of paste into sauce. Overall, the nutritional quality of tomato-processed products, except for ascorbic acid, is mainly preserved through manufacture. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Page D.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Page D.,University of Avignon | Van Stratum E.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Van Stratum E.,University of Avignon | And 5 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

The nutritional benefit of bioactive metabolites depends on their bioavailability, i.e. the proportion that leaves the food matrix, and crosses the enteral barrier to reach their cellular target. The present study focused on lycopene, the major and bioactive tomato carotenoid, the bioavailability of which is known to be enhanced in cooked products. To better understand how processing may facilitate lycopene release, we assessed whether hot-break (HB) or cold-break (CB) treatments influence the tomato lycopene bioaccessibility. HB and CB are used in the tomato industry to modulate texture of purees through endogenous cell-wall lytic enzymes activity. HB and CB processes were mimicked through microwave heating, leading to a differentiated temperature rise in the product. The HB and CB models led to the expected differences, i.e. more viscous puree for HB with low methanol. The ability of the tomato matrix to release lycopene was measured as the extractability of lycopene to oil under standardized mixing conditions. We expected that CB treatment, by enhancing cell-wall degradation, would lead to enhanced lycopene bioaccessibility. The opposite was observed: oil contained three times less lycopene when mixed by CB (around 0.3 μg ml-1; similar to results obtained with fresh purees) than when mixed by HB (around 0.9 μg ml-1), although HB caused more lycopene degradation. Kinetics studies indicated that the quick rise of temperature at the beginning of HB treatment was a key parameter. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Jbilou F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Dole P.,Center Technique Of La Conservation Des Produits Agricoles | Degraeve P.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Ladaviere C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Joly C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
European Polymer Journal | Year: 2015

This study aims to investigate a "green" recycling route for polybutylene succinate (PBS) based on reactive extrusion in the presence of an enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of this aliphatic polyester: lipase B from Candida antarctica. This enzyme was chosen due to its thermal stability, since reactive extrusion was performed at 120°C (i.e. above PBS melting temperature). PBS hydrolysis was measured after extrusion at 120°C either in a single or a twin screw extruder, in the presence of 0-10 wt% C. antarctica lipase for 5 or 30 min. In a twin screw extruder, the residual activity of the enzyme was still 38% or 24%, after 5-30 min extrusion at 120°C, respectively. For instance, the weight average molecular weight (Mw) of PBS decreased from 82,000 to 4500 g mol-1 after extrusion for 5 min in the presence of 1% wt of lipase. The highest yield of free succinic acid release (44%) was obtained following a 30 min extrusion in the presence of 10 wt% of C. antarctica lipase. The drastic decrease in weight average molecular weight of PBS after enzymatic hydrolysis caused an only 10°C decrease in the melting temperature. © 2015, Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Cihal P.,Institute of Chemical Technology Prague | Vopicka O.,Institute of Chemical Technology Prague | Pilnacek K.,Institute of Chemical Technology Prague | Poustka J.,Institute of Chemical Technology Prague | And 4 more authors.
Polymer Testing | Year: 2015

The removal of aroma compounds from packaged food items - aroma scalping - can be primarily controlled by the choice of packaging materials. Although the utilization of biodegradable polymers as packaging materials can greatly contribute to the sustainability of the packaging industry, only limited data on their aroma scalping properties are available. In this work, the aroma scalping characteristics of a series of films made from biodegradable polybutylene succinate (PBS) and polybutylene succinate-co-addipate (PBSA) for common aroma compounds in foods (ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, hexan-1-ol, heptanal and (R)-(+)-limonene) are reported. The aroma scalping characteristics of a film made from poorly biodegradable low density polyethylene (LDPE) are reported for comparison. The aroma scalping characteristics, namely sorption and diffusion coefficients, of the tested aroma compounds were determined at 23 °C by means of sorption microgravimetry, and the permeability coefficients were estimated using the solution-diffusion model. The permeability coefficients for the films made from PBS, PBSA and LDPE were comparable for the more polar compounds: hexan-1-ol, ethyl acetate and ethyl butyrate. Conversely, the permeability coefficients of the less polar aroma compounds (ethyl hexanoate, heptanal and (R)-(+)-limonene) in PBS and PBSA-based films were by one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of the LDPE. In addition, a new mathematical model was proposed for the kinetics of the transient sorption of aroma compounds of low volatility (psat < 1 kPa). © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Jbilou F.,University of Lyon | Joly C.,University of Lyon | Galland S.,University of Lyon | Belard L.,Pole Europeen de Plasturgie | And 5 more authors.
Polymer Testing | Year: 2013

Plasticised corn flour/poly(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate) (PBSA) materials were prepared by extrusion and injection in order to study the impact of PBSA ratio on their physicochemical properties and biodegradability. Scanning electron microscopy observations showed that corn flour and PBSA are incompatible. Three types of morphology have been observed: (i) starch dispersed in a PBSA matrix, (ii) a "co-continuous-like" morphology of starch and PBSA, and (iii) PBSA dispersed in a starch matrix. As expected, the extent of plasticised corn flour starch hydrolysis by amylolytic enzymes decreased when the amount of PBSA increased. Addition of a lipase to hydrolyse PBSA ester bonds enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of starch by amylolytic enzymes in materials where PBSA formed a continuous phase. This suggests that PBSA formed a barrier restricting the access of amylolytic enzymes to starch. This was consistent with aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation assays, which also showed lower biodegradability of materials containing a majority of PBSA. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Andre S.,Center Technique Of La Conservation Des Produits Agricoles | Hedin S.,Center Technique Of La Conservation Des Produits Agricoles | Remize F.,Center Technique Of La Conservation Des Produits Agricoles | Remize F.,University of Reunion Island | Zuber F.,Center Technique Of La Conservation Des Produits Agricoles
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to determine the inactivation effect of industrial formulations of peracetic acid biocides on bacterial spores adhering to stainless steel surfaces. A standardized protocol was used to validate biocide activity against spores in suspension. To validate sporicidal activity under practical conditions, we developed an additional protocol to simulate industrial sanitization of stainless steel surfaces with a foam sanitizer. Spores of three spore-forming bacteria, Clostridium sporogenes PA3679, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, and Moorella thermoacetica/thermoautotrophica, were sprayed onto stainless steel as bioaerosols. Sporicidal activity was high against the C. sporogenes spore suspension, with more than 5 log CFU ml -1 destroyed at all liquid biocide contact times. Sporicidal activity also was high against G. stearothermophilus and M. Thermoacetica/ thermoautotrophica spores after 30 min of contact, but we found no population reduction at the 5-min contact time for the highest sporicide concentration tested. The foam biocide effectively inactivated C. sporogenes spores adhered to stainless steel but had a reduced decontamination effect on other species. For G. stearothermophilus spores, sanitization with the foam sporicide was more efficient on horizontal steel than on vertical steel, but foam sanitization was ineffective against M. Thermoacetica/ thermoautotrophica whatever the position. These results highlight that decontamination efficiency may differ depending on whether spores are suspended in an aqueous solution or adhered to a stainless steel surface. Biocide efficiency must be validated using relevant protocols and bacteria representative of the microbiological challenges and issues affecting each food industry. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection.


Jbilou F.,University of Lyon | Georgousopoulou I.-N.,National Technical University of Athens | Marinkovic S.,Agro Industrie Recherches et Developpements | Vouyiouka S.,National Technical University of Athens | And 5 more authors.
European Polymer Journal | Year: 2016

Solid state post-polymerization (post-SSP) was performed on poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) commercial- and synthesized-grades and monitored for the first time by means of a fluorescent probe: (9-2-carboxy-2-cyanovinyl)julolidine or CCVJ. CCVJ is a molecular rotor and was simply incorporated in the PBS bulk (100 ppm) for fluorescent labelling. Post-SSP runs were then performed following a one- or two-step process. During the one-step process, CCVJ labelled PBS presented a moderate molecular weight (MW) increase (up to 1.15 times) along with a post-crystallization effect. Next, the SSP effectiveness was improved (in terms of MW- up to 4.2 times- and thermal characteristic upgrade) with the addition of a precrystallization step (two-step process). Labelled PBS showed a decrease of the CCVJ fluorescence intensity and a respective significant wavelength shift (blue shift) with SSP time. According to CCVJ calibration, this behavior was ascribed to the resultant MW increment and to the decrease of the acidic index (AI) during SSP. CCVJ was proven a reliable sensor able to act as a molecular rotor as well as a solvatochromic probe sensing both the molecular weight and polarity changes in the course of PBS SSP process. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Papaspyrides C.D.,National Technical University of Athens | Vouyiouka S.,National Technical University of Athens | Georgousopoulou I.-N.,National Technical University of Athens | Marinkovic S.,Agro Industrie Recherches et Developpements | And 3 more authors.
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2016

Fossil-based and true bio-based poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) prepolymers were synthesized and submitted to solid-state polymerization (SSP) in the proximity of the polyester melting point (Tm), for reaction times up to 29 h under flowing nitrogen. SSP acted as a postcrystallization process, imparting an increase of the PBS melting point up to 126 °C from a starting Tm of 112-114 °C. Adding a precrystallization step prior SSP even resulted in a 2.5 times increase of the initial MW and a Tm shift up to 128 °C. Furthermore, the effect of most critical process parameters on the SSP feasibility and effectiveness was assessed, so as to launch an appropriate operation profile. End-group imbalance turned out to be the most significant key parameter for PBS polymerizability, and various attempts were made toward correcting it. Finally, SSP was examined as a PBS recycling technique and efficiently revived hydrolyzed PBS structures. © 2016 American Chemical Society.


PubMed | Center Technique Of La Conservation Des Produits Agricoles
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of food protection | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to determine the inactivation effect of industrial formulations of peracetic acid biocides on bacterial spores adhering to stainless steel surfaces. A standardized protocol was used to validate biocide activity against spores in suspension. To validate sporicidal activity under practical conditions, we developed an additional protocol to simulate industrial sanitization of stainless steel surfaces with a foam sanitizer. Spores of three spore-forming bacteria, Clostridium sporogenes PA3679, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, and Moorella thermoacetica/thermoautotrophica, were sprayed onto stainless steel as bioaerosols. Sporicidal activity was high against the C. sporogenes spore suspension, with more than 5 log CFU ml(-1) destroyed at all liquid biocide contact times. Sporicidal activity also was high against G. stearothermophilus and M. thermoacetica/thermoautotrophica spores after 30 min of contact, but we found no population reduction at the 5-min contact time for the highest sporicide concentration tested. The foam biocide effectively inactivated C. sporogenes spores adhered to stainless steel but had a reduced decontamination effect on other species. For G. stearothermophilus spores, sanitization with the foam sporicide was more efficient on horizontal steel than on vertical steel, but foam sanitization was ineffective against M. thermoacetica/thermoautotrophica whatever the position. These results highlight that decontamination efficiency may differ depending on whether spores are suspended in an aqueous solution or adhered to a stainless steel surface. Biocide efficiency must be validated using relevant protocols and bacteria representative of the microbiological challenges and issues affecting each food industry.

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