Influence of soil tillage and Phoma macdonaldii on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) yield and oil quality [Influencia de la labranza del suelo y de Phoma macdonaldii sobre el rendimiento y la calidad del aceite de girasol (Helianthus annuus L.)]
Mirleau-Thebaud V.,University Of Toulouse Ei |
Mirleau-Thebaud V.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Oleagineux Metropolitains |
Scheiner J.D.,University Of Toulouse Ei |
Dayde J.,University Of Toulouse Ei
Phyton | Year: 2011
Plant yield and oil content determine sunflower production. Those plant production determinants depend in turn on the plant-environment interaction. In the South West of France, there have been recent advances in soil tillage. To date, 35% of the soil surface dedicated to sunflower is cropped under a reduced tillage system. Major constraints to sunflower cropping are water stress and cryptogamic diseases. The second most important sunflower disease in the South West of France is premature ripening caused by Phoma macdonaldii. Aims of this work were to: 1) understand how these factors influence sunflower yield, and 2) quantify the fatty acid quality variation under reduced tillage and Phoma macdonaldii infection. Results showed that 1) soil tillage influences sunflower oil fatty acid composition, 2) Phoma macdonaldii-induced premature ripening impacts plant nutrition through its effects on organs (leaves, stems, roots), yield and yield components, and 3) the disease influenced oil quality and the balance oleic-linoleic fatty acids.
Dongo A.,CNRS Nantes Laboratory of Vegetal Biology and Pathology |
Leflon M.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Oleagineux Metropolitains |
Simier P.,CNRS Nantes Laboratory of Vegetal Biology and Pathology |
Delavault P.,CNRS Nantes Laboratory of Vegetal Biology and Pathology
Weed Research | Year: 2012
The objective of this study was to develop a simple and robust quantitative PCR method for the detection of seeds from two parasitic plants, Phelipanche ramosa and Orobanche cumana, as well as their closely related species, in seed harvests of oilseed rape and sunflower. The method was based on the design of primers/probe sets specific to both parasitic plants and targeting internal transcribed spacer sequences for quantitative real-time PCR (TaqMan). Together with the proposed DNA extraction protocol, this diagnostic method allows rapid, high-throughput and accurate assessment of contamination with broomrape seeds, without the requirement of tedious purification steps and identification under a binocular microscope. The TaqMan assay is highly specific, because it did not detect any possible plant contaminants that are likely to be present in harvested crop seeds. The results of this assay can be expressed in terms of the number of parasite seeds per kilogram of crop seeds, a metric that could be utilised to help decisions regarding crop seed lot utilisation and commercialisation. © 2011 The Authors. Weed Research © 2011 European Weed Research Society.
Zago E.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development |
Lecomte J.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development |
Barouh N.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development |
Aouf C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
And 3 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2015
Rapeseed meal is the co-product of the pressing and de-oiling process of rapeseed seeds and is used as animal feed. Most of phenolic compounds remain in the meal after processing the seeds. While sinapine (sinapoyl choline), sinapoyl glucose and sinapic acid are naturally present in the seed, canolol (4-vinylsyringol) is formed during processes of pressing, oil extraction and roasting treatments via decarboxylation of sinapic acid. Canolol was recently described as a free-radical scavenger with various biological activities. One of the objectives of this work was the valorization of rapeseed meal as a source of canolol, this latter being produced through the transformation of sinapine and sinapic acid under hydration and roasting processes applicable at industrial scale. The parameters studied for the rapeseed meal processing were: (i) time of incubation after hydration: 0, 2 and 18. h and, (ii) thermal treatment: high-temperature steam (105°-160. °C) or microwave roasting (160°-180. °C). It was concluded that temperature, and exposure time in case of microwaves, were the most important factors in increasing concentrations of canolol in rapeseed meal. Incubation time after hydration did not influence the total phenolic compounds content suggesting the absence of endogenous enzymatic hydrolysis. However, it showed a particular contribution in sinapine, sinapic acid and canolol transformation during the microwave treatment. Finally, whatever the treatment, only a part of the sinapic acid initially present or generated during the processes, was converted into canolol. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.