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Gauthier M.,University of Nantes | Veronesi C.,University of Nantes | El-Halmouch Y.,Damanhour University | Leflon M.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Oleagineux et du Chanvre | And 5 more authors.
Crop Protection | Year: 2012

Over the past decade, Phelipanche ramosa, a weedy parasitic plant (broomrape), has been increasingly infesting winter oilseed rape (WOSR) fields in France. Elite WOSR lines have shown different responses in P. ramosa infested fields, suggesting that genetic variability might be available for breeding programmes targeting broomrape resistance. Ten WOSR genotypes selected for their contrasting response in field experiments were analysed using mini-rhizotron and greenhouse co-culture experiments to determine the components of resistance to broomrape. Partial resistance was revealed at three developmental stages of the parasitic plant. First, at the germination stage, parasite attachment to the roots of some WOSR lines was limited and associated with a low rate of parasite seed germination. This mechanism of parasite avoidance could nevertheless be suppressed under high infestation in mini-rhizotron and greenhouse conditions. Second, at the root attachment stage, limited parasite attachment was observed in mini-rhizotron conditions under low and high infestation, and in greenhouse conditions. Third, after successful parasite attachment, some WOSR genotypes retarded and even disturbed the growth of tubercles, minimising and delaying parasite emergence from the soil. Although the exact mechanisms limiting parasite attachment and tubercle development require further investigation, our findings suggest that, by cumulating various resistance traits in new genotypes to enhance effectiveness and potential durability of resistance, breeding could be a promising control strategy in WOSR. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Badey L.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Dauguet S.,Center technique interprofessionnel des oleagineux et du chanvre | Aoun W.B.,Center technique interprofessionnel des oleagineux et du chanvre | Aoun W.B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bosque F.,French National Center for Scientific Research
OCL - Oleagineux Corps Gras Lipides | Year: 2013

The eighth edition of the "international conference on Life Cycle Assessment in the Agrifood sector" was held in Saint Malo (France) in October 2012. It was organized by INRA, the French National Institute for Agricultural Research, with the support of ADEME, the French Environment and Energy Management Agency. The LCA Food conferences are the first international scientific forum on LCA in the agri-food sector. ITERG and CETIOM attended this conference. This paper reviews the principal research topics in progress on life cycle assessment shown and interesting for vegetable oil sector. Copyright © 2007 John Libbey Eurotext.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: ENERGY-2007-3.3-03 | Award Amount: 1.18M | Year: 2008

An ambitious and achievable vision for 2030 is that up to 25% of the EUs transport fuel needs could be meet by clean and CO2-efficient biofuel. To achieve this, it will be necessary to promote the transition towards second generation biofuels (e.g. lignocellulosic ethanol, syngas gas based fuels, pyrolysis oil based biofuels) but also support the implementation of currently available biofuels including biodiesel via integrated production of energy and other added-value products trough biorefineries. The aim of SUSTOIL is to develop advanced biorefinery schemes to convert whole EU oil-rich crops (rapeseed, olive and sunflower) into energy (fuels, power and heat), food and bioproducts (chemicals and/or materials) making optimal uses of the side streams generated during farming/harvesting, primary processing (e.g. oil extraction and refining) and secondary processing (e.g. transesterification). This will be achieved by bringing together the appropriate skills in Europe so as to create a critical mass of expertise necessary to develop the Biorefinery scheme. SUSTOIL will integrate the expertise of a number of Project Partners with the expertise of an Advisory Board composed of experts from the EU, US and beyond. Economic, social and environmental costs benefits of optimal integrated schemes will be assessed and main technological challenges/knowledge gaps will be identified, resulting in recommendations of key activities for future collaborative projects. SUSTOIL will disseminate the results of the action via the media, a dedicated website and the internationally recognised Renewable Resources and Biorefinery conference series


Sausse C.,Center technique interprofessionnel des oleagineux et du chanvre | Colbach N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Colbach N.,University of Burgundy | Young M.W.,James Hutton Institute | Squire G.R.,James Hutton Institute
European Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2012

Grain admixture due to gene flow of oilseed rape (OSR) could be economically damaging. Different strategies are currently used or proposed to manage grain quality, ranging from homogenisation at the silo level to tactical decision rules at the field level. The relevance of these general strategies was appraised in the case of genetically modified (GM) OSR in three contrasted regions in Europe: Beauce Blésoise (France), Schleswig-Flensburg (Germany), and Fife (UK). Field patterns, crop allocation and agricultural practices were derived from existing datasets and complementary field surveys. Then a gene flow simulator was used to assess how the local contexts influenced the grain admixture between GM and non-GM OSR (without separation measures). The simulations showed that grain admixtures in fields followed a leptokurtic curve. While, however, the worst case was similar in the three regions, the median differed greatly depending on contextual factors such as the size and arrangement of fields. Grain admixture very rarely exceeded the 0.9% threshold for non-GM products if assessed at the level of the silo, at which the grains from all non-GM crops were combined, while maintaining crops below the threshold at the field level required management of a few high risk situations. Analysing grain admixtures and commercial risks at different decision levels (field, silo) demonstrated the efficiency of " flexible" as opposed to " rigid" measures, but this technical analysis did not take other criteria like regulatory issues into account. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2011.1.4-06 | Award Amount: 4.19M | Year: 2012

Agricultural production faces numerous challenges regarding competitiveness, conserving natural and non-renewable resources (water, soil, air, phosphorus, fossil fuels) and ecosystem services (pollination, natural pest control, soil fertility). Society also expects from agriculture to be more environment-friendly in several issues such as climatic change, declining biodiversity, fossil energy depletion, and water shortage. To overcome these limitations, CANTOGETHER will design innovative sustainable mixed farming systems (MFS). A design-assessment-adjustment iterative cycle will be adopted to ensure continuous validation and improvement of the innovative investigated MFS through a participative approach involving stakeholders and researchers across Europe. It will bring together a European network of 24 existing experimental and commercial farms covering a wide diversity of natural and socio-economic conditions in which the most promising MFS will be implemented in order to verify their practicability and to perform an in-depth integrated assessment (economic and environmental). The MFS will be designed for individual farm level or collective implementation at the territorial level. At the same time, CANTOGETHER will define recommendations for a common agricultural policy promoting the development of these MFS. The innovative analysed MFS will be based on the simultaneous utilization of crops (cash, feed and energetic) and various rearing animals with full recycling practices of animal wastes in view to ensure high resource-use efficiency (notably of nutrients), reduction in dependence on external inputs (fertilisers, pesticides, concentrated feeds), and acceptable environmental and economic performances. CANTOGETHER will produce a complete picture of their effects and will facilitate their adoption by jointly involving researchers and the key actors of the agricultural sector (farmers, advisors, policy makers, and actors of the food supply chain).


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2013.1.2-02 | Award Amount: 6.88M | Year: 2014

The project has been conceived to promote the culture of grain legumes in Europe by identifying priority issues currently limiting grain legume cultivation and devising solutions in term of novel varietal development, culture practices, and food uses. LEGATO will develop tools and resources to enable state of the art breeding methodology and to exploit fully the breadth of genetic resources available. The project will focus on a small number of key characters not previously explored in depth and complementary to other ongoing European and national projects. These topics covered include disease and pest resistance, where in addition to marker development for major fungal and viral pathogens, a focus on emerging insect pests is planned. The impact of end-of-season drought and heat stress on the rhizobial symbiosis, and its consequences for plant performance, will be studied. Two characters that can influence grain legume yield, autofertility and number of flowering nodes, will be investigated. The potential for improving legume nutritional and organoleptic quality by identification of desirable traits and innovative selection methods will be investigated. LEGATO will conceive sustainable legume-based cropping systems adapted to different pedoclimatic zones, respecting local constraints. The project has been constructed around the participation of commercial partners including SMEs in the areas of marker development, plant breeding, and legume food processing, who will benefit from the advances made in these areas in LEGATO. Promising legume varieties and cropping systems will be tested at a series of pan-european sites to favour the widest possible take-up in agriculture, and the partners potentially concerned will participate in a stakeholder forum convened regularly during the project.


Fujisaki K.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Oleagineux et du Chanvre | Fujisaki K.,Montpellier SupAgro | Perrin A..-S.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Oleagineux et du Chanvre | Desjardins T.,IRD Montpellier | And 3 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2015

The impact of deforestation on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks is important in the context of climate change and agricultural soil use. Trends of SOC stock changes after agroecosystem establishment vary according to the spatial scale considered, and factors explaining these trends may differ sometimes according to meta-analyses. We have reviewed the knowledge about changes in SOC stocks in Amazonia after the establishment of pasture or cropland, sought relationships between observed changes and soil, climatic variables and management practices, and synthesized the δ13C measured in pastures. Our dataset consisted of 21 studies mostly synchronic, across 52 sites (Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Suriname), totalling 70 forest-agroecosystem comparisons. We found that pastures (n = 52, mean age = 17.6 years) had slightly higher SOC stocks than forest (+6.8 ± 3.1 %), whereas croplands (n = 18, mean age = 8.7 years) had lower SOC stocks than forest (-8.5 ± 2.9 %). Annual precipitation and SOC stocks under forest had no effect on the SOC changes in the agroecosystems. For croplands, we found a lower SOC loss than other meta-analyses, but the short time period after deforestation here could have reduced this loss. There was no clear effect of tillage on the SOC response. Management of pastures, whether they were degraded/nominal/improved, had no significant effect on SOC response. δ13C measurements on 16 pasture chronosequences showed that decay of forest-derived SOC was variable, whereas pasture-derived SOC was less so and was characterized by an accumulation plateau of 20 Mg SOC ha-1 after 20 years. The large uncertainties in SOC response observed could be derived from the chronosequence approach, sensitive to natural soil variability and to human management practices. This study emphasizes the need for diachronic and long-term studies, associated with better knowledge of agroecosystem management. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Dauguet S.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Oleagineux et du Chanvre | Lacoste F.,French National Center for Scientific Research
OCL - Oleagineux Corps Gras Lipides | Year: 2013

Oilseeds food chain operators are coordinated through a food safety survey plan, in order to get a realistic picture of the contamination in oilseed products (seeds, oilseed meal, and vegetable oil). Concerned crops are those cultivated or processed in France: rapeseed, sunflower and soybean. Grain storage companies, feeding industries and oil industries participate voluntarily, and send their self-data that are pooled in a database. The food safety of oilseeds survey plan allows to identify which are main concerns, for instance post-harvest insecticide residues from cross contamination during storage. Results of this monitoring plan were transmitted to the French government and the European Commission in cases of revisions of regulatory thresholds.


Fujisaki K.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Oleagineux et du Chanvre | Fujisaki K.,Montpellier SupAgro | Perrin A.-S.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Oleagineux et du Chanvre | Boussafir M.,CNRS Earth Sciences Institute of Orléans | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Soil Science | Year: 2015

Large inputs of woody debris to soil can improve the soil. We examined the fate of woody debris buried in soil after fire-free forest conversion to cropland in French Guiana. We measured the mass loss of woody debris >4mm on five sampling dates for 4years after deforestation. Composition of the organic matter of woody debris was analysed with Rock-Eval pyrolysis, which enabled us to distinguish a labile carbon pool (Clab) and a resistant carbon pool (Cres). Decomposition of woody debris followed a first-order function with a half-life of 17.6months. During the decomposition of woody debris >4mm, the C:N ratio, hydrogen index (HI) and pyrolysed carbon below 400°C (R400) decreased, suggesting that decarboxylation and dehydrogenation of woody debris occurred. Both Clab and Cres stocks decreased with time, but the decrease in Clab was faster. There was little humification of the debris and no long-term biogeochemical preservation of a woody debris fraction, which accords with the first-order decay observed. We conclude that the benefits of ligno-cellulosic inputs for soil organic carbon contents in a tropical humid climate occur during the first year following deforestation. © 2015 British Society of Soil Science.


Perrin A.-S.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Oleagineux et du Chanvre | Fujisaki K.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Oleagineux et du Chanvre | Fujisaki K.,Montpellier SupAgro | Petitjean C.,University of the French West Indies and Guiana | And 8 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2014

Fire-free forest conversion with organic inputs as an alternative to slash-and-burn could improve agro-ecosystem sustainability. We assessed soil carbon mass changes in a sandy-clayey and well-drained soil in French Guiana after forest clearing by the chop-and-mulch method and crop establishment. At the experimental site of Combi, native forest was cut down in October 2008; woody biomass was chopped and incorporated into the top 20cm of soil. After about one year of legume and grass cover, three forms of land management were compared: grassland (Urochloa ruziziensis), maize/soybean crop rotation with disk tillage and in direct seeding without tillage. There were four replicates. We measured 14.16kgm-2 of carbon in 2mm-sieved soil down to 2m depth for the initial forest. Forest clearing did not induce significant soil compaction; neither did any specific agricultural practice. In converted soils, C stocks were measured in the 0-30cm layer after each crop for three years. Carbon mass changes for soil fractions <2mm (soil C stock) and >2mm (soil C pool) in the 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-30cm soil layers were assessed on an equivalent soil mass basis. One year and 1.5 years after deforestation, higher C stocks (+0.64 to 1.16kgCm-2yr-1) and C pools (+0.52 to 0.90kgCm-2yr-1) were measured in converted soils, compared to those of the forest into the top 30cm of soil. However, the masses of carbon in these converted soils declined later. The highest rates of carbon decrease were measured between 1.5 and 2 years after forest conversion in the <2mm soil fraction, from 0.46kgCm-2yr-1 (in grassland soils) to 0.71kgCm-2yr-1 (in cropland under no tillage). The carbon pool declined during the third year at rates of 0.41kgCm-2yr-1 (cropland under disk tillage) to 0.76kgCm-2yr-1 (grassland soils). Three years after forest conversion, C masses in the top 30cm of soils for grassland showed similar values than for forest. In comparison, the carbon stock in cropped soils managed under no tillage in direct seeding (without mulch) was significantly 17% and 16% lower than in forest and grassland soils, respectively. None of the studied agricultural practices succeeded in accumulating carbon from the chopped forest biomass. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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