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Causse M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Friguet C.,Laboratoire Of Mathematiques Appliquees | Coiret C.,Laboratoire Of Mathematiques Appliquees | LePicier M.,Laboratoire Of Mathematiques Appliquees | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2010

Abstract: Although tomato flavor has not been a major goal for breeders, nowadays it becomes important as it is a subject of consumer complaint. A better knowledge of tomato consumer preferences, at the European level, should provide the basis for improvement of fruit quality and for market segmentation. In the framework of a large European project, 806 consumers from 3 countries, The Netherlands, France, and Italy, were presented with a set of 16 varieties representing the diversity of fresh tomato offer in order to evaluate their preferences. In parallel, sensory profiles were constructed by expert panels in each country. Preference maps were then constructed in each country revealing the structure of consumer preferences and allowing identification of the most important characteristics. Then a global analysis revealed that preferences were quite homogeneous across countries. This study identified the overall flavor and firmness as the most important traits for improving tomato fruit quality. It showed that consumer preferences from different European countries, with different cultures and food practices, are segmented following similar patterns when projected onto a common referential plan. Moreover, the results clearly showed that diversification of taste and texture is required to satisfy all consumers' expectations as some consumers preferred firm tomatoes, while others preferred melting ones and were more or less demanding in terms of sweetness and flavor intensity. Detailed comparisons also showed the importance of the fruit appearance in consumer preference.Practical Application: The consumer preferences for fresh market tomato were studied in 3 European countries. The main descriptors for further breeding for consumer satisfaction were identified. Four clusters of consumers were identified in the overall analysis, the 3 countries contributing the same way to each cluster. The impact of appearance in the preferences was also underlined. Journal compilation © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original government works.


Boreau De Roince C.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Legumes | Boreau De Roince C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Boreau De Roince C.,University of Cardiff | Lavigne C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 3 more authors.
Bulletin of Entomological Research | Year: 2013

Aphids are major pests in apple orchards, debilitating the crop and spreading disease. We investigated whether early-season predation by canopy spiders may be effectively controlling aphid numbers in three organic orchards. For this purpose, we monitored the aphid population dynamics from the winter eggs to colony stages and compared this to spider abundances and rates of predation on aphids detected by diagnostic polymerase chain reaction. For the latter, we applied existing general aphid primers. We found that spiders ate colony fundatrices and that aphid numbers were negatively related to spider abundance. Spiders were the main active predators within the orchards when the first colony fundatrices were present, indicating their importance in the early control of aphid populations. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2012.


Caffier V.,CNRS Research Institute on Horticulture and Seeds | Lasserre-Zuber P.,CNRS Research Institute on Horticulture and Seeds | Lasserre-Zuber P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Giraud M.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Legumes | And 9 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2014

Theoretical approaches predict that host quantitative resistance selects for pathogens with a high level of pathogenicity, leading to erosion of the resistance. This process of erosion has, however, rarely been experimentally demonstrated. To investigate the erosion of apple quantitative resistance to scab disease, we surveyed scab incidence over time in a network of three orchards planted with susceptible and quantitatively resistant apple genotypes. We sampled Venturia inaequalis isolates from two of these orchards at the beginning of the experiment and we tested their quantitative components of pathogenicity (i.e., global disease severity, lesion density, lesion size, latent period) under controlled conditions. The disease severity produced by the isolates on the quantitatively resistant apple genotypes differed between the sites. Our study showed that quantitative resistance may be subject to erosion and even complete breakdown, depending on the site. We observed this evolution over time for apple genotypes that combine two broad-spectrum scab resistance QTLs, F11 and F17, showing a significant synergic effect of this combination in favour of resistance (i.e., favourable epistatic effect). We showed that isolates sampled in the orchard where the resistance was inefficient presented a similar level of pathogenicity on both apple genotypes with quantitative resistance and susceptible genotypes. As a consequence, our results revealed a case where the use of quantitative resistance may result in the emergence of a generalist pathogen population that has extended its pathogenicity range by performing similarly on susceptible and resistant genotypes. This emphasizes the need to develop quantitative resistances conducive to trade-offs within the pathogen populations concerned. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Lefebvre M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Lefebvre M.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Legumes | Franck P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Toubon J.-F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 2 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2016

Enhancing naturally occurring generalist predators can improve pest control. In orchards, canopy-dwelling species are major actors of pest control because pests attack fruits and growing shoots within the canopy. Cheiracanthium mildei, an arboreal spider, is a predator of several important insect pests. We assessed its autumnal occurrence in a set of 61 commercial apple orchards over three consecutive years (2010-2012). We determined the impact of agronomic and land-cover characteristics on C. mildei occurrence at both the local and landscape levels using a random forest analysis and regression trees. This approach highlighted the differential effect of landscape variables according to local orchard pest management. First, the presence of exclusion nets against the codling moth (Cydia pomonella) increased C. mildei occurrence by 59%. Second, landscape variables only influenced C. mildei occurrence in orchards that were not covered by nets. In particular, abandoned orchards increased C. mildei occurrence in orchards not covered by nets and not surrounded by organic orchards. Third, overall, habitats containing trees increased C. mildei abundance in orchards with and without nets, which is consistent with the arboreal habitat of this species. Lastly, the occurrences of C. mildei and of C. pomonella were not related, indicating that the enhancement of C. mildei does not preclude a control of this major pest. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: ISIB-02-2015 | Award Amount: 1.84M | Year: 2016

The European Fruit Network (EUFRUIT) includes 12 countries focussed on 4 thematic areas of critical for the competiveness and innovation potential of the European Fruit sector: i) new cultivar development and evaluation; ii) minimise residues on fruit and the environment; iii) optimising storage and fruit quality; iv) sustainable production systems. EUFRUIT will coordinate and support innovation through developing a framework for relevant stakeholders and it will establish a systematic approach for knowledge gathering and dissemination. The systematic approach includes: i) scanning & synthesis via 4 expert groups who scan state-of-art knowledge, practises and technologies and synthesise the material to identify key areas of learning and best practise approaches at a European level. ii) showing & sharing will deliver outreach/dialogue at a national level through establishment of local operational groups. An online Knowledge Platform will hold all outreach material, outreach activities include; 100 industry publications, 90 technical bulletins, 25 flyers/newsletters, 60 seminars, 160 field based meetings, 25 conference plus 12 events aimed at the general public. iii) sustaining the network will occur through long-term integration of the assembled EUFRUIT network in future actions. The overall outcome of EUFRUIT will be establishment of a framework and a systematic approach that together builds a bridge across the valley of death. This bridge will secure a direct path for new knowledge in the future and reduce the likelihood of repetition of research at a national level. The European fruit sector will have ready access to up-to-date information to implement and value will be created both for the industry with respect to competitiveness, sustainability and efficiency and society through ensuring the security and safety of fruit; underpinning human health and wellbeing.


Boreau de Roince C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Boreau de Roince C.,University of Cardiff | Lavigne C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Ricard J.-M.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Legumes | And 4 more authors.
Agricultural and Forest Entomology | Year: 2012

Biological control by conservation of native natural enemies can, at its best, reduce the need for pesticides and prevent detrimental effects upon the environment. The present study investigated the role of ground-active generalist predators as natural enemies of two tortricid pests in apple orchards. Predation rates were compared on the well established codling moth Cydia pomonella and the emerging oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta, which has recently switched hosts to apples. he present study hypothesized that the ground-active predators consumed the two tortricid pests in significant numbers without preference, and attacked the pests at different developmental stages. Using diagnostic polymerase chain reaction on the gut contents of field-caught ground-active predators, no difference in predation rates was found on these two pests. Spiders were the most efficient predators of emergent adult moths in spring, whereas the carabid beetles, feeding on diapausing larvae, were important in the autumn. 5 The temporal complementarity between spiders and carabid beetles, attacking different stages of the pests at different times of year, highlights the need for diverse predator assemblages to optimize biological control. © 2012 The Authors. Agricultural and Forest Entomology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SFS-07a-2014 | Award Amount: 4.37M | Year: 2015

Tomato is the second most consumed vegetable in the EU and a major dietary source of many nutrients, vitamins and antioxidants. Consumers complaints about the loss of flavour in modern tomatoes, provide an opportunity for the valorisation of traditional tomato varieties, in order to protect them from genetic erosion and the replacement by higher-yielding, pest resistant modern cultivars. Genetic, epigenetic and phenotypic variability and knowledge from farms and in public repositories, will be concentrated in a TRADITOM database and seed repository (O1). The available genetic and phenotypic variability present in TRADITOM varieties, and the genetic and epigenetic differences from modern cultivars will be assessed (O2). For varieties whose cultivation is not sustainable due to unacceptably low yield and/or pathogen resistance, novel F1 hybrids will be generated, retaining the quality characteristics of traditional varieties and incorporating yield and disease resistance traits (O3) Finally, traditional varieties and the impact of traditional cultivation methods will be valorised through a thorough characterization of their composition in term of flavour- and health-related compounds, the identification of consumer preferences, the evaluation of socio-economic factors limiting their market diffusion, and the protection of the most significant case studies through PDO or PGI denominations (O4). TRADITOM is a multidisciplinary translational, multi-actor research project bringing together scientists working in academia, local farmers communities, consumer experts and small seed companies that have preserved the local germplasm, in order to bring to fruition and apply to traditional tomato varieties the enormous knowledge generated on tomato genetics, genomics and metabolomics. This will help the conservation of traditional tomato varieties and enhance the competitive advantage of rural communities based on their production.


Sarles L.,University of Liège | Verhaeghe A.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Legumes | Francis F.,University of Liège | Verheggen F.J.,University of Liège
Crop Protection | Year: 2015

Worldwide economic losses associated with Rhagoletis fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) require an effective means of control. Most conventional insecticides used to control fruit flies have been banned, and fruit producers are seeking new economical fruit fly control options. Bait stations can be a suitable alternative, provided they are affordable, effective and pest-specific. Semiochemicals are important for fruit flies to locate their host fruit and to reproduce. They could therefore be good candidates to improve existing bait stations. In this literature review, we summarize the available data on Rhagoletis semiochemicals, including (1) the kairomones involved in fruit location, (2) mating and sex pheromones and (3) oviposition and host marking pheromones. We present the latest data on the chemical composition of these semiochemicals, as well as some field applications that have been successful at Rhagoletis fly control. Based on the available data on the semiochemicals of Rhagoletis species and other Tephritid flies, we believe that the association of an efficient food attractant with early applications of host marking pheromones could reduce the risk of oviposition that usually occurs rapidly after emergence. Also, traps baited with sex pheromones and/or fruit-associated kairomones could attract and kill emerging individuals. However, analytical work has still to be conducted, as most Rhagoletis semiochemicals have yet to be identified. © 2015.


Aubert C.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Legumes | Bony P.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Legumes | Chalot G.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Legumes | Landry P.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Legumes | Lurol S.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Legumes
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Western Red nectarines, harvested at commercial maturity, were stored for up to 20 days at 1, 4, or 8 °C and then transferred to 25 °C for 0 or 4 days. The main physicochemical attributes, phytochemicals, and volatile compounds were then determined. During storage and ripening, firmness, titratable acidity, organic acids, and C6 volatile compounds decreased, whereas ethylene production, lactones, and C13 norisoprenoids greatly increased. Soluble solids content, sugars, and polyphenols remained quite constant during both stages. During storage, vitamin C decreased and carotenoids did not significantly change, whereas both greatly increased during ripening. Increased time of low-temperature storage has been found to decrease lactones and C13 norisoprenoids in nectarine and, consequently, to limit its aroma during maturation. Finally, Western Red nectarine was found hardly chilling injury sensitive, and trends for sugars, polyphenols and lactones observed in this study were contrary to those generally reported in the literature for chilling-injured fruit. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Bourrain L.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Legumes | Charlot G.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Legumes
Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2014

An early diagnosis for compatibility between cherry varieties and rootstocks is required to launch new plant material on the market. An in vitro, slit-micrografting technique for Prunus avium L. 'Regina' on 'Piku® 1' rootstock [P. avium × (P. canescens × P. tomentosa)] is presented as a model for cherry species. In vitro shoot tips, cut in a V-shape, were used as scions, while shoots induced for in vitro rooting were used as rootstocks. The success of various parameters was examined: micro-scion size, carbon source, number of in vitro scion multiplication cycles, composition of the medium, and grafted tissue treatment. Micrografts were cultured on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium without added plant growth regulators (PGRs). The highest percentages of successful grafts (80% at 4 weeks after grafting and 58% at 3 months after acclimatisation) were obtained using glucose as the sole carbon source, vermiculite in the agar medium, and 3 - 5 mm-long shoot tips formed in vitro as scions. Additional chemicals such as kinetin, ascorbic acid, citric acid, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), or 6-benzyladenine (BA) did not improve grafting, but a rapid micrografting process was most important. The number of in vitro scion multiplication cycles was shown to have no effect. Using in vitro cultures of both scion and rootstock, aseptic conditions were maintained throughout the micrografting process and no problems of contamination were encountered.

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