Entity

Time filter

Source Type


Sarles L.,University of Liege | Verhaeghe A.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Legumes | Francis F.,University of Liege | Verheggen F.J.,University of Liege
Crop Protection | Year: 2015

Worldwide economic losses associated with Rhagoletis fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) require an effective means of control. Most conventional insecticides used to control fruit flies have been banned, and fruit producers are seeking new economical fruit fly control options. Bait stations can be a suitable alternative, provided they are affordable, effective and pest-specific. Semiochemicals are important for fruit flies to locate their host fruit and to reproduce. They could therefore be good candidates to improve existing bait stations. In this literature review, we summarize the available data on Rhagoletis semiochemicals, including (1) the kairomones involved in fruit location, (2) mating and sex pheromones and (3) oviposition and host marking pheromones. We present the latest data on the chemical composition of these semiochemicals, as well as some field applications that have been successful at Rhagoletis fly control. Based on the available data on the semiochemicals of Rhagoletis species and other Tephritid flies, we believe that the association of an efficient food attractant with early applications of host marking pheromones could reduce the risk of oviposition that usually occurs rapidly after emergence. Also, traps baited with sex pheromones and/or fruit-associated kairomones could attract and kill emerging individuals. However, analytical work has still to be conducted, as most Rhagoletis semiochemicals have yet to be identified. © 2015. Source


Causse M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Friguet C.,Laboratoire Of Mathematiques Appliquees | Coiret C.,Laboratoire Of Mathematiques Appliquees | LePicier M.,Laboratoire Of Mathematiques Appliquees | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2010

Abstract: Although tomato flavor has not been a major goal for breeders, nowadays it becomes important as it is a subject of consumer complaint. A better knowledge of tomato consumer preferences, at the European level, should provide the basis for improvement of fruit quality and for market segmentation. In the framework of a large European project, 806 consumers from 3 countries, The Netherlands, France, and Italy, were presented with a set of 16 varieties representing the diversity of fresh tomato offer in order to evaluate their preferences. In parallel, sensory profiles were constructed by expert panels in each country. Preference maps were then constructed in each country revealing the structure of consumer preferences and allowing identification of the most important characteristics. Then a global analysis revealed that preferences were quite homogeneous across countries. This study identified the overall flavor and firmness as the most important traits for improving tomato fruit quality. It showed that consumer preferences from different European countries, with different cultures and food practices, are segmented following similar patterns when projected onto a common referential plan. Moreover, the results clearly showed that diversification of taste and texture is required to satisfy all consumers' expectations as some consumers preferred firm tomatoes, while others preferred melting ones and were more or less demanding in terms of sweetness and flavor intensity. Detailed comparisons also showed the importance of the fruit appearance in consumer preference.Practical Application: The consumer preferences for fresh market tomato were studied in 3 European countries. The main descriptors for further breeding for consumer satisfaction were identified. Four clusters of consumers were identified in the overall analysis, the 3 countries contributing the same way to each cluster. The impact of appearance in the preferences was also underlined. Journal compilation © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original government works. Source


Caffier V.,CNRS Research Institute on Horticulture and Seeds | Lasserre-Zuber P.,CNRS Research Institute on Horticulture and Seeds | Lasserre-Zuber P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Giraud M.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Legumes | And 9 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2014

Theoretical approaches predict that host quantitative resistance selects for pathogens with a high level of pathogenicity, leading to erosion of the resistance. This process of erosion has, however, rarely been experimentally demonstrated. To investigate the erosion of apple quantitative resistance to scab disease, we surveyed scab incidence over time in a network of three orchards planted with susceptible and quantitatively resistant apple genotypes. We sampled Venturia inaequalis isolates from two of these orchards at the beginning of the experiment and we tested their quantitative components of pathogenicity (i.e., global disease severity, lesion density, lesion size, latent period) under controlled conditions. The disease severity produced by the isolates on the quantitatively resistant apple genotypes differed between the sites. Our study showed that quantitative resistance may be subject to erosion and even complete breakdown, depending on the site. We observed this evolution over time for apple genotypes that combine two broad-spectrum scab resistance QTLs, F11 and F17, showing a significant synergic effect of this combination in favour of resistance (i.e., favourable epistatic effect). We showed that isolates sampled in the orchard where the resistance was inefficient presented a similar level of pathogenicity on both apple genotypes with quantitative resistance and susceptible genotypes. As a consequence, our results revealed a case where the use of quantitative resistance may result in the emergence of a generalist pathogen population that has extended its pathogenicity range by performing similarly on susceptible and resistant genotypes. This emphasizes the need to develop quantitative resistances conducive to trade-offs within the pathogen populations concerned. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Caffier V.,CNRS Research Institute on Horticulture and Seeds | Lasserre-Zuber P.,CNRS Research Institute on Horticulture and Seeds | Giraud M.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Legumes | Lascostes M.,Crrg Center Regional Of Ressources Genetiques | And 8 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2014

Theoretical approaches predict that host quantitative resistance selects for pathogens with a high level of pathogenicity, leading to erosion of the resistance. This process of erosion has, however, rarely been experimentally demonstrated. To investigate the erosion of apple quantitative resistance to scab disease, we surveyed scab incidence over time in a network of three orchards planted with susceptible and quantitatively resistant apple genotypes. We sampled Venturia inaequalis isolates from two of these orchards at the beginning of the experiment and we tested their quantitative components of pathogenicity (i.e., global disease severity, lesion density, lesion size, latent period) under controlled conditions. The disease severity produced by the isolates on the quantitatively resistant apple genotypes differed between the sites. Our study showed that quantitative resistance may be subject to erosion and even complete breakdown, depending on the site. We observed this evolution over time for apple genotypes that combine two broad-spectrum scab resistance QTLs, F11 and F17, showing a significant synergic effect of this combination in favour of resistance (i.e., favourable epistatic effect). We showed that isolates sampled in the orchard where the resistance was inefficient presented a similar level of pathogenicity on both apple genotypes with quantitative resistance and susceptible genotypes. As a consequence, our results revealed a case where the use of quantitative resistance may result in the emergence of a generalist pathogen population that has extended its pathogenicity range by performing similarly on susceptible and resistant genotypes. This emphasizes the need to develop quantitative resistances conducive to trade-offs within the pathogen populations concerned. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Lefebvre M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Lefebvre M.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Legumes | Franck P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Toubon J.-F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 2 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2016

Enhancing naturally occurring generalist predators can improve pest control. In orchards, canopy-dwelling species are major actors of pest control because pests attack fruits and growing shoots within the canopy. Cheiracanthium mildei, an arboreal spider, is a predator of several important insect pests. We assessed its autumnal occurrence in a set of 61 commercial apple orchards over three consecutive years (2010-2012). We determined the impact of agronomic and land-cover characteristics on C. mildei occurrence at both the local and landscape levels using a random forest analysis and regression trees. This approach highlighted the differential effect of landscape variables according to local orchard pest management. First, the presence of exclusion nets against the codling moth (Cydia pomonella) increased C. mildei occurrence by 59%. Second, landscape variables only influenced C. mildei occurrence in orchards that were not covered by nets. In particular, abandoned orchards increased C. mildei occurrence in orchards not covered by nets and not surrounded by organic orchards. Third, overall, habitats containing trees increased C. mildei abundance in orchards with and without nets, which is consistent with the arboreal habitat of this species. Lastly, the occurrences of C. mildei and of C. pomonella were not related, indicating that the enhancement of C. mildei does not preclude a control of this major pest. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Discover hidden collaborations