Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Legumes

Paris, France

Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Legumes

Paris, France
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Villeneuve F.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Legumes | Latour F.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Legumes
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2017

Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is a cool-season vegetable normally classified as a biennial species, requiring vernalisation to induce flowering. Generally, for seed production in France, the technique used is seed-to-seed, with sowing in August and harvest in August the next year. The quality of flowering, expressed in percentage of plants induced, depends on different parameters such as the genotype, the stage of development and chilling exposure. We have compared two different genotypes from open-pollinated cultivars, the first one is considered susceptible to flowering, 'Blanche à collet vert très hors terre', and the second one, 'Carol', less susceptible. For two years, 2012 and 2013, different sowings were compared for different seed lots coming from early or late flowering dates. Plants from seeds from the earliest flowering carrots flowered at an earlier stage of development and with a lower chilling requirement. Only one cycle is necessary to induce this difference.


Raynal C.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Legumes | Denoroy P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2017

New indicators for bioavailability, in link with the knowledge of the phenomena involved in plants' phosphate nutrition, were assessed in carrot crops, and experimental references were established. The trials conducted in the Aquitaine region, a major French carrot production area for the fresh market, consisted in analysing the response of carrot, in terms of yield, to a wide range of soil phosphorus supply levels. The synthesis of the data acquired during a three-year study shows the importance of the P concentration in the soil solution, i.e. the soluble P, noted as Cp, for diagnosing the soil's nutritional status. Measuring Cp may be sufficient in the case of slightly buffered soils, characteristic for carrot cultivation in Aquitaine. However, the quality of the relation between yield and soil supply improves when it is represented by the sum of soluble P and diffusible P, linked to the plant's functioning. This is indicator E. Threshold values were determined, corresponding to 1 mg P L-1 and 15.7 mg P kg-1 soil respectively for Cp and E. Those thresholds require further validation in a wider range of agronomic conditions. Furthermore, the newly acquired knowledge and technical references already make it possible to rectify fertilising practices in Aquitaine. In optimum fertilising conditions, the crop takes up 26 kg P ha-1, i.e. 60 kg P2O5 ha-1, and soil supply represents two thirds of the phosphorus uptake. This study offers perspective for new diagnosing methods, which take into account the functioning of the plant species. It shows that a more sparing use of phosphorus in carrot crops is possible without compromising yield. Changing fertilising practices accordingly will guarantee a better preservation of natural resources and water quality. Finally, the outcome of this study encourages us to apply those new concepts in soil phosphorus supply to a wider range of vegetables, in order to establish a reliable basis for integrated P management practices.


Villeneuvea F.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Legumes | Latour F.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Legumes
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2017

In France, as in northern Europe, the carrot fly (Psila rosae Fabre) is the most important pest of Apiaceae crops, principally for carrots but also for celeriac, parsnips, parsley. This pest takes on a new importance with the reduction of active ingredients available to growers for crop protection and the absence of good alternatives easily usable by growers. Research is being conducted on risk forecasting models, in particular the German model SWAT. Unfortunately, SWAT does not yet allow a suitable forecast of the risks: the first flight is predicted too early under the conditions of southwest France but also in the west, the flight predicted for June-July is generally not observed in the south, and the third flight is predicted too early. Firstly, we have observed that in the south and west of France the overwintering form is larvae and not pupae like in the more northern zones. Secondly, pupal estivation is not really taken into account by the model explaining the difficulty to have a reliable forecast for the last flight. With the strong thermal amplitudes observed in southwest France, it is necessary to take into account the values of maximum temperatures after the first flight for the evaluation of the second flight, which occurs in autumn.


Bourrain L.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Legumes
New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science | Year: 2017

A highly efficient in vitro micropropagation protocol, using newly emerged sprouts coming from greenhouse-grown plants, was developed to produce Actinidia melanandra Franch. and Actinidia rubricaulis Dunn. This is the first report of in vitro culture of A. rubricaulis Dunn. Axenic culture was possible using one- or two-node explants or terminal buds, surface-sterilised with commercial bleach tablets. Nearly 90% success rate in establishment was observed. The best axillary shoot proliferation and maximum adventitious shoots elongation were achieved on Quoirin-Lepoivre medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L−1 6-benzyladenine and 30 g L−1 sucrose. Although used as an inert support, agar brand has a significant effect. Kobe agar at 8 g L−1 gave the best response. 100% of in vitro rooting was observed. Roots length and their quality were highly improved by the use of vermiculite in transfer medium. Over 99% of rooted plants survived after acclimatisation. © 2017 The Royal Society of New Zealand


Baros C.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Legumes
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2017

Carrot purchases have been fairly stable for many years. However, they are now threatened by new consumer trends such as two-course meals (without starters) instead of three-course meals, and the increasing share of catering, where it does not have the place it deserves. Carrots are still perceived as an excellent, local, very traditional vegetable. The quality is good, the product well known. But its uses are in dire need of rejuvenation, in order to adapt to new cooking and consumption habits of the young generations.


The influence of hedges or groves on Apiaceae crop colonization by the carrot fly Psila rosae and common fly predators such as spiders (Araneidae), staphilinids and carabids was studied in a three-year study carried out in France from 2009 to 2011. For that purpose, a network of Apiaceae fields was established. Spider, staphilinid and carabid activity-density as well as fly egg density were measured in each field during the carrot fly oviposition period, and fly hole incidence was measured at harvest. Correlations between all these variables were studied. These variables were also compared between fields surrounded with hedges or groves and fields surrounded with low-density semi-natural structures such as bare soil or grass strips. The results of this study indicate that spider, staphilinid and carabid activity-density is correlated in a significant way with fly egg density. The effect of woody field edges is likely positive on activity-density of some these arthropods, but such field edges also stimulate, in a very significant way, the colonization of crops by P. rosae and appear to be deleterious for Apiaceae production.


Aubert C.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Legumes | Chalot G.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Legumes
Food Chemistry | Year: 2018

Six table grape cultivars (Centennial Seedless, Chasselas, Italia, Italia Rubi, Alphonse Lavallée, and Muscat de Hambourg) were analyzed for their levels of soluble solids, titratable acidity, sugars, organic acids, vitamin C and E, carotenoids, polyphenolics and volatile compounds during two successive years. Descriptive sensory analyses of the six table grape varieties were also performed. Mainly due to anthocyanins, black cultivars had the highest total phenolic contents. Alphonse Lavallée had also both the highest levels of trans-resveratrol and piceid, and Muscat de Hambourg the highest levels of α-tocopherol, β-carotene and monoterpenols, well-known key aroma compounds in Muscat varieties having also interesting pharmacological properties. This study shows that the two traditional black French cultivars, Muscat de Hambourg and Alphonse Lavallée, are particularly rich in bioactive compounds and have a great potential for human health. Finally, Muscat de Hambourg was significantly rated sweeter, juicier and more aromatic than the others cultivars. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Lefebvre M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Lefebvre M.,Center Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Legumes | Franck P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Toubon J.-F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 2 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2016

Enhancing naturally occurring generalist predators can improve pest control. In orchards, canopy-dwelling species are major actors of pest control because pests attack fruits and growing shoots within the canopy. Cheiracanthium mildei, an arboreal spider, is a predator of several important insect pests. We assessed its autumnal occurrence in a set of 61 commercial apple orchards over three consecutive years (2010-2012). We determined the impact of agronomic and land-cover characteristics on C. mildei occurrence at both the local and landscape levels using a random forest analysis and regression trees. This approach highlighted the differential effect of landscape variables according to local orchard pest management. First, the presence of exclusion nets against the codling moth (Cydia pomonella) increased C. mildei occurrence by 59%. Second, landscape variables only influenced C. mildei occurrence in orchards that were not covered by nets. In particular, abandoned orchards increased C. mildei occurrence in orchards not covered by nets and not surrounded by organic orchards. Third, overall, habitats containing trees increased C. mildei abundance in orchards with and without nets, which is consistent with the arboreal habitat of this species. Lastly, the occurrences of C. mildei and of C. pomonella were not related, indicating that the enhancement of C. mildei does not preclude a control of this major pest. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: ISIB-02-2015 | Award Amount: 1.84M | Year: 2016

The European Fruit Network (EUFRUIT) includes 12 countries focussed on 4 thematic areas of critical for the competiveness and innovation potential of the European Fruit sector: i) new cultivar development and evaluation; ii) minimise residues on fruit and the environment; iii) optimising storage and fruit quality; iv) sustainable production systems. EUFRUIT will coordinate and support innovation through developing a framework for relevant stakeholders and it will establish a systematic approach for knowledge gathering and dissemination. The systematic approach includes: i) scanning & synthesis via 4 expert groups who scan state-of-art knowledge, practises and technologies and synthesise the material to identify key areas of learning and best practise approaches at a European level. ii) showing & sharing will deliver outreach/dialogue at a national level through establishment of local operational groups. An online Knowledge Platform will hold all outreach material, outreach activities include; 100 industry publications, 90 technical bulletins, 25 flyers/newsletters, 60 seminars, 160 field based meetings, 25 conference plus 12 events aimed at the general public. iii) sustaining the network will occur through long-term integration of the assembled EUFRUIT network in future actions. The overall outcome of EUFRUIT will be establishment of a framework and a systematic approach that together builds a bridge across the valley of death. This bridge will secure a direct path for new knowledge in the future and reduce the likelihood of repetition of research at a national level. The European fruit sector will have ready access to up-to-date information to implement and value will be created both for the industry with respect to competitiveness, sustainability and efficiency and society through ensuring the security and safety of fruit; underpinning human health and wellbeing.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SFS-07a-2014 | Award Amount: 4.37M | Year: 2015

Tomato is the second most consumed vegetable in the EU and a major dietary source of many nutrients, vitamins and antioxidants. Consumers complaints about the loss of flavour in modern tomatoes, provide an opportunity for the valorisation of traditional tomato varieties, in order to protect them from genetic erosion and the replacement by higher-yielding, pest resistant modern cultivars. Genetic, epigenetic and phenotypic variability and knowledge from farms and in public repositories, will be concentrated in a TRADITOM database and seed repository (O1). The available genetic and phenotypic variability present in TRADITOM varieties, and the genetic and epigenetic differences from modern cultivars will be assessed (O2). For varieties whose cultivation is not sustainable due to unacceptably low yield and/or pathogen resistance, novel F1 hybrids will be generated, retaining the quality characteristics of traditional varieties and incorporating yield and disease resistance traits (O3) Finally, traditional varieties and the impact of traditional cultivation methods will be valorised through a thorough characterization of their composition in term of flavour- and health-related compounds, the identification of consumer preferences, the evaluation of socio-economic factors limiting their market diffusion, and the protection of the most significant case studies through PDO or PGI denominations (O4). TRADITOM is a multidisciplinary translational, multi-actor research project bringing together scientists working in academia, local farmers communities, consumer experts and small seed companies that have preserved the local germplasm, in order to bring to fruition and apply to traditional tomato varieties the enormous knowledge generated on tomato genetics, genomics and metabolomics. This will help the conservation of traditional tomato varieties and enhance the competitive advantage of rural communities based on their production.

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