Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques En Cote Divoire Csrs

Abidjan, Ivory Coast

Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques En Cote Divoire Csrs

Abidjan, Ivory Coast
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Tano M.B.,Nangui Abrogoua University | Dassi C.,Félix Houphouët-Boigny University | Mosi L.,University of Ghana | Koussemon M.,Nangui Abrogoua University | Bonfoh B.,Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques En Cote Divoire Csrs
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2017

Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), particularly mycolactone producing mycobacteria (MPM), are bacteria found in aquatic environments causing skin diseases in humans like Buruli ulcer (BU). Although the causative agent for BU, Mycobacterium ulcerans has been identified and associated with slow-moving water bodies, the real transmission route is still unknown. This study aimed to characterize MPMs from environmental aquatic samples collected in a BU non-endemic community, Adiopodoumé, in Côte d’Ivoire. Sixty samples were collected in four types of matrices (plant biofilms, water filtrate residues, plant detritus and soils) from three water bodies frequently used by the population. Using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), MPMs were screened for the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) mycobacterial gene, the IS2404 insertion sequence, and MPM enoyl reductase (ER) gene. Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) typing with loci 6, 19, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit 1 (MIRU1) and sequence type 1(ST1) was performed to discriminate between different MPMs. Our findings showed 66.7%, 57.5% and 43.5% of positivity respectively for 16S rRNA, IS2404 and ER. MPM discrimination using VNTR typing did not show any positivity and therefore did not allow precise MPM distinction. Nevertheless, the observed contamination of some water bodies in a BU non-endemic community by MPMs suggests the possibility of pathogen dissemination and transmission to humans. These aquatic environments could also serve as reservoirs that should be considered during control and prevention strategies. © 2017 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Soro D.,Félix Houphouët-Boigny University | Kone W.M.,Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques En Cote Divoire Csrs | Bonfoh B.,Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques En Cote Divoire Csrs | Dro B.,Félix Houphouët-Boigny University | And 2 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2013

The identification of new anthelmintic drugs becomes a priority because of the availability of a handful of drugs, cost of treatments, and recent emergence of drug resistance. Medicinal plants are a good source of bioactive compounds for development of drugs. In this study, in vivo efficacy of Anogeissus leiocarpus was assessed in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Fecal examination, serological analyses, and necropsy were carried out to determine the egg and worm-burden reduction. The administration of ethanolic extract (single oral dose of 80 mg/kg) of A. leiocarpus induced a moderate fecal egg reduction (81 %) and adult worm-burden reduction (87 %) against Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis (82 %). The plant exhibited high efficacy against adult Strongyloïdes papillosus (100 %), Gaigeria pachyscelis (90 %), Cooperia curticei (100 %), and Oesophagostomum columbianum (95 %) but low efficacy against Trichostrongylus axei (67 %) and Trichuris globulosa (79 %). All these helminthes were sensitive to fenbendazole, except O. columbianum which showed a decrease susceptibility (17 %). The plant extract also improved certain biological parameters by increasing bodyweight from 0.7 ± 2.9 to 3.3 ± 1.9 % and improving hematocrit of 6.9 ± 1.6 % 3-week posttreatment. It emerges from the results that the plant possesses significant effectiveness on diarrhea; all treated animals gave normal feces. This study has shown that A. leiocarpus could find an application in the control of multiparasitism in small ruminants. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Amin A.,University dAuvergne | Amin A.,Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques En Cote Divoire Csrs | Zaehringer J.G.,University of Bern | Schwilch G.,University of Bern | Kone I.,Félix Houphouët-Boigny University
Natural Resources Forum | Year: 2015

The long-term integrity of protected areas (PAs), and hence the maintenance of related ecosystem services (ES), are dependent on the support of local people. In the present study, local people's perceptions of ecosystem services from PAs and factors that govern local preferences for PAs are assessed. Fourteen study villages were randomly selected from three different protected forest areas and one control site along the southern coast of Côte d'Ivoire. Data was collected through a mixed-method approach, including qualitative semi-structured interviews and a household survey based on hypothetical choice scenarios. Local people's perceptions of ecosystem service provision was decrypted through qualitative content analysis, while the relation between people's preferences and potential factors that affect preferences were analyzed through multinomial models. This study shows that rural villagers do perceive a number of different ecosystem services as benefits from PAs in Côte d'Ivoire. The results based on quantitative data also suggest that local preferences for PAs and related ecosystem services are driven by PAs' management rules, age, and people's dependence on natural resources. © 2015 United Nations.


Jans C.,ETH Zurich | Kaindi D.W.M.,University of Nairobi | Bock D.,ETH Zurich | Njage P.M.K.,ETH Zurich | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2013

Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus are members of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) associated with human infections. SBSEC-related endocarditis was furthermore associated with rural residency in Southern Europe. SBSEC members are increasingly isolated as predominant species from fermented dairy products in Europe, Asia and Africa. African variants of Sii displayed dairy adaptations to lactose metabolism paralleling those of Streptococcus thermophilus including genome decay. In this study, the aim was to assess the prevalence of Sii and possibly other SBSEC members in dairy products of East and West Africa in order to identify their habitat, estimate their importance in dairy fermentation processes and determine geographic areas affected by this potential health risk. Presumptive SBSEC members were isolated on semi-selective M17 and SM agar media. Subsequent genotypic identification of isolates was based on rep-PCR fingerprinting and SBSEC-specific16S rRNA gene PCR assay. Detailed identification was achieved through application of novel primers enhancing the binding stringency in partial groES/groEL gene amplification and subsequent DNA sequencing. The presence of S. thermophilus-like lacS and lacZ genes in the SBSEC isolates was determined to elucidate the prevalence of this dairy adaptation. Isolates (n=754) were obtained from 72 raw and 95 fermented milk samples from CÔte d'Ivoire and Kenya on semi-selective agar media. Colonies of Sii were not detected from raw milk despite high microbial titers of approximately 106CFU/mL on M17 agar medium. However, after spontaneous milk fermentation Sii was genotypically identified in 94.1% of Kenyan samples and 60.8% of Kenyan isolates. Sii prevalence in CÔte d'Ivoire displayed seasonal variations in samples from 32.3% (June) to 40.0% (Dec/Jan) and isolates from 20.5% (June) to 27.7% (Dec/Jan) present at titers of 106-108CFU/mL. lacS and lacZ genes were detected in all Kenyan and 25.8% (June) to 65.4% (Dec/Jan) of Ivorian Sii isolates. Regional differences in prevalence of Sii and dairy adaptations were observed, but no clear effect of dairy animal, fermentation procedure and climate was revealed. Conclusively, the high prevalence of Sii in Kenya, CÔte d'Ivoire in addition to Somalia, Sudan and Mali strongly indicates a pivotal role of Sii in traditional African dairy fermentations potentially paralleling that of typical western dairy species S. thermophilus. Putative health risks associated with the consumption of high amounts of live Sii and potential different degrees of evolutionary adaptation or ecological colonization require further epidemiologic and genomic investigations, particularly in Africa. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Amin A.,University of Auvergne | Amin A.,Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques En Cote Divoire Csrs | Kone I.,Laboratoire Of Zoologie Et Biologie Animale Of Luniversite Of Cocody
Society and Natural Resources | Year: 2015

The local socioeconomic context of protected areas (PAs) is not well documented, especially in Western Africa, despite the existence of priority conservation sites, along with the steady state of poverty in the region. This article presents research that measures the perceived costs and benefits of a conservation project on rural household welfare. The study uses the market price method along with contingent valuation methodology. The analyses provide empirical evidence that although PAs reduce local welfare, there exist locally valued benefits associated with conservation. Those benefits are, however, inadequate to offset the costs incurred by local people. While the results confirm that protected areas reduce local economic welfare in developing areas, our findings qualify the paradigm that states that “protected areas are bad for local people.” © 2015, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


PubMed | University of Nairobi, Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques En Cote Divoire Csrs and ETH Zurich
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC microbiology | Year: 2016

The Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) comprises seven (sub)species classified as human and animal commensals, emerging opportunistic pathogens and food fermentative organisms. Changing taxonomy, shared habitats, natural competence and evidence for horizontal gene transfer pose difficulties for determining their phylogeny, epidemiology and virulence mechanisms. Thus, novel phylogenetic and functional classifications are required. An SBSEC overarching multi locus sequence type (MLST) scheme targeting 10 housekeeping genes was developed, validated and combined with host-related properties of adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins (ECM), activation of the immune responses via NF-KB and survival in simulated gastric juice (SGJ).Commensal and pathogenic SBSEC strains (n=74) of human, animal and food origin from Europe, Asia, America and Africa were used in the MLST scheme yielding 66 sequence types and 10 clonal complexes differentiated into distinct habitat-associated and mixed lineages. Adhesion to ECMs collagen I and mucin type II was a common characteristic (23% of strains) followed by adhesion to fibronectin and fibrinogen (19.7%). High adhesion abilities were found for East African dairy and human blood isolate branches whereas commensal fecal SBSEC displayed low adhesion. NF-KB activation was observed for a limited number of dairy and blood isolates suggesting the potential of some pathogenic strains for reduced immune activation. Strains from dairy MLST clades displayed the highest relative survival to SGJ independently of dairy adaptation markers lacS/lacZ.Combining phylogenetic and functional analyses via SBSEC MLST enabled the clear delineation of strain clades to unravel the complexity of this bacterial group. High adhesion values shared between certain dairy and blood strains as well as the behavior of NF-KB activation are concerning for specific lineages. They highlighted the health risk among shared lineages and establish the basis to elucidate (zoonotic-) transmission, host specificity, virulence mechanisms and enhanced risk assessment as pathobionts in an overarching One Health approach.


Chouaibou M.,Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques En Cote Divoire Csrs | Zivanovic G.B.,Vestergaard Frandsen | Knox T.B.,Vestergaard Frandsen | Jamet H.P.,Vestergaard Frandsen | Bonfoh B.,Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques En Cote Divoire Csrs
Acta Tropica | Year: 2014

Metabolic resistance and the potential role of permeability-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pumps were investigated in a pyrethroid-resistant wild Anopheles gambiae s.l. Tiassalé population, using WHO susceptibility assays with deltamethrin (0.05%), with and without pre-exposure to synergists. The synergists used included an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein efflux pumps (verapamil), an inhibitor of esterases (EN 16-5), and an inhibitor of P450s and esterases (piperonyl butoxide). Pre-exposure to verapamil followed by deltamethrin led to a slight but non-significant (P= 0.59) increase in mortality relative to exposure to deltamethrin alone (64.5% versus 69.2%). Similarly, pre-exposure to EN 16-5 yielded a non-significant increase in mortality (to 76.6%; P= 0.85) but a significant increase in the knock down rate (from 48.3% to 78.7%; P< 0.01). Pre-exposure with PBO caused a significant increase in mortality (to 93.1%; P< 0.001) and knockdown rate (100%; P< 0.001), which related to a 2.9 fold decrease in the resistance level. The results provide evidence that metabolic resistance mechanisms are present within the assessed mosquito population. The decrease in time to knock down of this population with deltamethrin following exposure to EN16-5 and PBO is of particular relevance to vector control, where quick knock down is a highly desired characteristic. The suspected resistance mechanisms present in this population merit further investigation through biochemical and molecular analyses for full resistance profile characterization. Bioassays with synergists can provide a quick and easy basis for initial characterization of resistant mosquito populations, without the need of preserved specimens, expensive equipment and substrates or specialized expertise. © 2013 The Authors.


Kouame-Sina S.M.,Nanguy Abrogoua University | Makita K.,Kenya International Livestock Research Institute | Makita K.,Rakuno Gakuen University | Costard S.,Royal Veterinary College | And 5 more authors.
Food and Nutrition Bulletin | Year: 2012

Background. Animal-source foods are important causes of food-borne illness, and milk and dairy products can contain pathogenic microorganisms. Objective. We conducted a stochastic assessment of the risk of ingesting milk contaminated with specific microbial pathogens (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus spp.) in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Methods. We carried out structured interviews and focus group discussions with farmers (n = 15), vendors (n = 17), and consumers (n = 188) to characterize dairy production systems and milk consumption behavior. Microbiological sampling was conducted at different points between milking and sale. A risk model was developed, and the risk of consuming contaminated raw milk was estimated by Monte Carlo simulation. Results. The investigation into local raw milk consumption patterns showed that the proportion of raw milk consumption was 51.6% in people who consume milk. The probability of ingestion of marketed raw milk that failed to meet standards for this group of bacteria was 29.9% and about 652 consumers per day were estimated to ingest contaminated milk. Microbiological tests from the farm showed that 7.2% of samples taken from milkers' hands, 4.4% of water samples (water used to rinse milk containers or milking utensils (calabash, plastic bottle, filters, buckets), 4.4% of environmental samples (air pollution), 13.2% of samples from milking utensils, and 4.9% of samples from cows' udders were contaminated with one or more of these pathogens. About 624.6 L of marketed raw milk would need to be discarded per day if discarding milk was chosen as the option of risk reduction. The destruction of this milk would result in a potential loss of €623.9 per day for all producers. Conclusions. The risk of human illness from consumption of raw milk could be mitigated by raising awareness about heat treatment of milk and good hygiene practices in the dairy chain. © 2012, The United Nations University.


PubMed | Vestergaard Frandsen and Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques En Cote Divoire Csrs
Type: | Journal: Acta tropica | Year: 2016

Metabolic resistance and the potential role of permeability-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pumps were investigated in a pyrethroid-resistant wild Anopheles gambiae s.l. Tiassal population, using WHO susceptibility assays with deltamethrin (0.05%), with and without pre-exposure to synergists. The synergists used included an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein efflux pumps (verapamil), an inhibitor of esterases (EN 16-5), and an inhibitor of P450s and esterases (piperonyl butoxide). Pre-exposure to verapamil followed by deltamethrin led to a slight but non-significant (P=0.59) increase in mortality relative to exposure to deltamethrin alone (64.5% versus 69.2%). Similarly, pre-exposure to EN 16-5 yielded a non-significant increase in mortality (to 76.6%; P=0.85) but a significant increase in the knock down rate (from 48.3% to 78.7%; P<0.01). Pre-exposure with PBO caused a significant increase in mortality (to 93.1%; P<0.001) and knockdown rate (100%; P<0.001), which related to a 2.9 fold decrease in the resistance level. The results provide evidence that metabolic resistance mechanisms are present within the assessed mosquito population. The decrease in time to knock down of this population with deltamethrin following exposure to EN16-5 and PBO is of particular relevance to vector control, where quick knock down is a highly desired characteristic. The suspected resistance mechanisms present in this population merit further investigation through biochemical and molecular analyses for full resistance profile characterization. Bioassays with synergists can provide a quick and easy basis for initial characterization of resistant mosquito populations, without the need of preserved specimens, expensive equipment and substrates or specialized expertise.


PubMed | Royal Veterinary College, Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques En Cote Divoire Csrs, Afrique One Consortium Ecole Inter Etats des science et Medecine Veterinaires EISMV, University Peleforo Gon Coulibaly and Kenya International Livestock Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal health research reviews | Year: 2016

The success of a systematic review depends on the availability, accessibility and quality of literature related to the review question. This paper presents the literature found in four systematic reviews conducted for a selection of zoonotic hazards in four livestock value chains in Africa, as well as setting out the challenges in conducting the reviews. The protocol was designed following international standards, and addressed four questions around prevalence, risk factors, control options and impact of various hazards and populations. Searches were conducted in four online databases. Articles were screened for relevance, and quality was assessed before data extraction. Literature on zoonotic hazards was in general scarce and access to full articles was limited. Overall, 25-40% of papers were considered poor quality. The diversity of approaches and designs in the studies compromised the ability to generate summarized estimates. We found that the emphasis of veterinary research has been on livestock problems rather than public health issues, although this seems to be shifting in the last decade; we also found there are limited studies on impact and control. While increasing literature is being published around zoonoses in Africa, this is still inadequate to appropriately inform policy and guide research efforts.

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