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Kouadio O.K.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | N'Dri D.Y.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Nindjin C.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Marti A.,University of Milan | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition | Year: 2013

Total starch (TS) and resistant starch (RS) contents in pasty edible product of mealy and hard cooking tubers of three yam varieties and four cassava varieties were determined to evaluate their contribution in their cooking quality. TS and RS contents appeared as the main components in determining yam cooking quality. Mealy cooking yam varieties were characterized by a significant higher TS content (75.2 ± 7.7 g/100 g d.m.) and lower RS content (13.8 ± 3.4 g/100 g d.m.) than hard cooking yam varieties, which, in contrast, contained less TS (61.7 ± 12.1 g/100 g d.m.) and particularly high RS (21.8 ± 9.9 g/100 g d.m.), possibly as a consequence of the prevalence of large granules (35-40 μm) observed by light microscope. Conversely, TS and RS contents appeared not determinant on the cooking quality of cassava. Moreover, higher amylose contents were associated with substantially elevated percentages of RS in yam and cassava, and high RS content in samples modulates their pasting properties by reducing the peak viscosity and the breakdown and requiring higher temperature and longer time to the peak. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

Kouame-Sina S.M.,Nangui Abrogoua University | Makita K.,Kenya International Livestock Research Institute | Makita K.,Rakuno Gakuen University | Costard S.,Royal Veterinary College | And 5 more authors.
Food and Nutrition Bulletin | Year: 2012

Background. Animal-source foods are important causes of food-borne illness, and milk and dairy products can contain pathogenic microorganisms. Objective. We conducted a stochastic assessment of the risk of ingesting milk contaminated with specific microbial pathogens (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus spp.) in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Methods. We carried out structured interviews and focus group discussions with farmers (n = 15), vendors (n = 17), and consumers (n = 188) to characterize dairy production systems and milk consumption behavior. Microbiological sampling was conducted at different points between milking and sale. A risk model was developed, and the risk of consuming contaminated raw milk was estimated by Monte Carlo simulation. Results. The investigation into local raw milk consumption patterns showed that the proportion of raw milk consumption was 51.6% in people who consume milk. The probability of ingestion of marketed raw milk that failed to meet standards for this group of bacteria was 29.9% and about 652 consumers per day were estimated to ingest contaminated milk. Microbiological tests from the farm showed that 7.2% of samples taken from milkers' hands, 4.4% of water samples (water used to rinse milk containers or milking utensils (calabash, plastic bottle, filters, buckets), 4.4% of environmental samples (air pollution), 13.2% of samples from milking utensils, and 4.9% of samples from cows' udders were contaminated with one or more of these pathogens. About 624.6 L of marketed raw milk would need to be discarded per day if discarding milk was chosen as the option of risk reduction. The destruction of this milk would result in a potential loss of €623.9 per day for all producers. Conclusions. The risk of human illness from consumption of raw milk could be mitigated by raising awareness about heat treatment of milk and good hygiene practices in the dairy chain. © 2012, The United Nations University. Source

Amin A.,University dAuvergne | Amin A.,Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques En Cote Divoire Csrs | Zaehringer J.G.,University of Bern | Schwilch G.,University of Bern | Kone I.,Felix Houphouet-Boigny University
Natural Resources Forum | Year: 2015

The long-term integrity of protected areas (PAs), and hence the maintenance of related ecosystem services (ES), are dependent on the support of local people. In the present study, local people's perceptions of ecosystem services from PAs and factors that govern local preferences for PAs are assessed. Fourteen study villages were randomly selected from three different protected forest areas and one control site along the southern coast of Côte d'Ivoire. Data was collected through a mixed-method approach, including qualitative semi-structured interviews and a household survey based on hypothetical choice scenarios. Local people's perceptions of ecosystem service provision was decrypted through qualitative content analysis, while the relation between people's preferences and potential factors that affect preferences were analyzed through multinomial models. This study shows that rural villagers do perceive a number of different ecosystem services as benefits from PAs in Côte d'Ivoire. The results based on quantitative data also suggest that local preferences for PAs and related ecosystem services are driven by PAs' management rules, age, and people's dependence on natural resources. © 2015 United Nations. Source

Amin A.,University of Auvergne | Amin A.,Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques En Cote Divoire Csrs | Kone I.,Laboratoire Of Zoologie Et Biologie Animale Of Luniversite Of Cocody
Society and Natural Resources | Year: 2015

The local socioeconomic context of protected areas (PAs) is not well documented, especially in Western Africa, despite the existence of priority conservation sites, along with the steady state of poverty in the region. This article presents research that measures the perceived costs and benefits of a conservation project on rural household welfare. The study uses the market price method along with contingent valuation methodology. The analyses provide empirical evidence that although PAs reduce local welfare, there exist locally valued benefits associated with conservation. Those benefits are, however, inadequate to offset the costs incurred by local people. While the results confirm that protected areas reduce local economic welfare in developing areas, our findings qualify the paradigm that states that “protected areas are bad for local people.” © 2015, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Chouaibou M.,Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques En Cote Divoire Csrs | Zivanovic G.B.,Vestergaard Frandsen | Knox T.B.,Vestergaard Frandsen | Jamet H.P.,Vestergaard Frandsen | Bonfoh B.,Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques En Cote Divoire Csrs
Acta Tropica | Year: 2014

Metabolic resistance and the potential role of permeability-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pumps were investigated in a pyrethroid-resistant wild Anopheles gambiae s.l. Tiassalé population, using WHO susceptibility assays with deltamethrin (0.05%), with and without pre-exposure to synergists. The synergists used included an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein efflux pumps (verapamil), an inhibitor of esterases (EN 16-5), and an inhibitor of P450s and esterases (piperonyl butoxide). Pre-exposure to verapamil followed by deltamethrin led to a slight but non-significant (P= 0.59) increase in mortality relative to exposure to deltamethrin alone (64.5% versus 69.2%). Similarly, pre-exposure to EN 16-5 yielded a non-significant increase in mortality (to 76.6%; P= 0.85) but a significant increase in the knock down rate (from 48.3% to 78.7%; P< 0.01). Pre-exposure with PBO caused a significant increase in mortality (to 93.1%; P< 0.001) and knockdown rate (100%; P< 0.001), which related to a 2.9 fold decrease in the resistance level. The results provide evidence that metabolic resistance mechanisms are present within the assessed mosquito population. The decrease in time to knock down of this population with deltamethrin following exposure to EN16-5 and PBO is of particular relevance to vector control, where quick knock down is a highly desired characteristic. The suspected resistance mechanisms present in this population merit further investigation through biochemical and molecular analyses for full resistance profile characterization. Bioassays with synergists can provide a quick and easy basis for initial characterization of resistant mosquito populations, without the need of preserved specimens, expensive equipment and substrates or specialized expertise. © 2013 The Authors. Source

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