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Sy I.,Institute National Of Recherches En Santepublique Inrsp | Sy I.,Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques Csrs | Keita M.,Institute National Of Recherches En Santepublique Inrsp | Taleb M.O.,Institute National Of Recherches En Santepublique Inrsp | And 3 more authors.
Cahiers Sante | Year: 2010

In African cities where environmental, social and economic problems facilitate the development of urban pathology, inadequate or ineffective health facilities raise the question of access to quality care, especially for slum dwellers. The city of Nouakchott marked by a multifaceted urban crisis is an illustration of this troubling situation. To analyse the spatial organisation and functioning of the healthcare system by assessing the use of health services, we studied this utilisation in August 2004 in three areas of the city by a cross-sectional survey of 836 households. The results show that therapeutic itineraries are as diverse as health care provision is varied. About 50.8% of those seeking health care reported using modern services (public health clinics, private clinics, private doctors or nurses) for the most common diseases (acute respiratory infection and diarrhea) in their community, but this rate varied significantly by disease, social category and neighborhood. Thus, this mediocre level of utilisation of public health clinics is due to the poor quality of care provided. Moreover, healthcare services are often used only in case of severe or worsening illness, with signs (e.g., cough and persistent fever, or weight loss) seen to suggest more serious diseases, such as tuberculosis, meningitis or severe malaria. Geographic accessibility of health services was relatively good (70%). It was the economic, socio-cultural, organizational and functional factors that appeared to determine the choice to use modern health care. The slackening of socio-cultural and organizational constraints and adaptation to economic ones should help to improve health policies and foster a functioning healthcare system.

Wullschleger S.,ETH Zurich | Lacroix C.,ETH Zurich | Bonfoh B.,Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques Csrs | Sissoko-Thiam A.,British Petroleum | And 7 more authors.
International Dairy Journal | Year: 2013

Seasonal fluctuations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) communities were analysed in spontaneous fermentation processes of the Malian sour milk fènè through the design of a novel flow-chart protocol for rapid typing of putative LAB. The protocol is based on cultivation on semi-selective complex agar media, followed by a binary scheme for genus- and species-specific genotypic identification. Presumptive LAB (n = 1583) were isolated and typed from 98 samples. Fènè samples displayed 108 cfu mL-1 in all seasons. Seasonal fluctuations indicated a higher prevalence of Streptococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. in the cold and hot season, respectively. Analysis of enterococci (n = 596) and streptococci (n = 454) revealed the predominance of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius over Streptococcus thermophilus. The binary culture-based protocol is a rapid tool to follow LAB species diversity and seasonal variations in any complex dairy microbial ecosystem including the cultivation of strains for subsequent characterisation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Soro D.,Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques Csrs | Dao D.,Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques Csrs | Girardin O.,Fondation rurale interjurassienne | Bi T.T.,British Petroleum | Tschannen B.A.,Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques Csrs
Cahiers Agricultures | Year: 2010

The yam is one of the most important food crops in the Ivory Coast in terms of production and consumption. Thirty improved varieties from the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) were introduced by the Centre suisse de recherches scientifiques (CSRS) in Côte d'Ivoire for diffusion. ANADER (the National Agency for Rural Development) participated in the identification of the pilot farmers and helped to conduct the trials in order to understand the mechanisms for technological transfer in agriculture. The varieties introduced proved to give better agronomical performance than the local ones. Still, their poorer culinary quality limited their acceptability. In fact, the decision of farmers was based on two principal criteria: quality and productivity. Two varieties of Dioscorea alata and two varieties of Dioscorea rotundata were particularly appreciated for their quality and productivity. In addition, D. alata varieties proved to be better ground cover. Some yam varieties were appreciated by producers for their broad distribution phase but were finally rejected due to their purplish coloured flesh. After selection, the most appreciated varieties were spontaneously distributed among producers. This distribution was initially supported by ANADER, the main agency. The distribution took into account the economic value and the relative utility of the varieties. The diffusion curve was sigmoid for all species. In total, 38% of producers (n = 1,283) accepted the varieties and the adoption process of these varieties today is still going on.

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