Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques

Abidjan, Ivory Coast

Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques

Abidjan, Ivory Coast

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Weibel D.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Hattendorf J.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Bonfoh B.,Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques | Zinsstag J.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Schelling E.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2011

Problem Reliable demographic data is a central requirement for health planning and management, and for the implementation of adequate interventions. This study addresses the lack of demographic data on mobile pastoral communities in the Sahel. Approach A total of 1081 Arab, Fulani and Gorane women and 2541 children (1336 boys and 1205 girls) were interviewed and registered by a biometric fingerprint scanner in five repeated random transect demographic and health surveys conducted from March 2007 to January 2008 in the Lake Chad region in Chad. Local setting Important determinants for the planning and implementation of household surveys among mobile pastoral communities include: environmental factors; availability of women for interviews; difficulties in defining "own" children; the need for information education-communication campaigns; and informed consent of husbands in typically patriarchal societies. Relevant changes Due to their high mobility, only 5% (56/1081) of registered women were encountered twice. Therefore, it was not possible to establish a demographic and health cohort. Lessons learnt Prospective demographic and health cohorts are the most accurate method to assess child mortality and other demographic indices. However, their feasibility in a highly mobile pastoral setting remains to be shown. Future interdisciplinary scientific efforts need to target innovative methods, tools and approaches to include marginalized communities in operational health and demographic surveillance systems.


Lemasson A.,R.A.U.M. | Ouattara K.,R.A.U.M. | Ouattara K.,University Of Cocody | Bouchet H.,R.A.U.M. | And 2 more authors.
Naturwissenschaften | Year: 2010

Call rate can be a salient feature in animal communication. Depending on the species, different psychological variables appear to influence call rates but the exact nature of these relationships remains poorly explored. Here, we demonstrate for free-ranging Campbell's monkeys that the call rates of four different alarm series (termed H, K, K+, and B series) vary systematically as a function of context, associated behaviour, and identity of the caller. K+ series were given more rapidly to predation than nonpredation events, K+ and K series more rapidly to visual than auditory predator detection, and H series more rapidly while counterattacking an eagle than staying put. Finally, there were individual differences in B series, suggesting that call rate potentially provides listeners with cues about the caller's anti-predator behaviour, event type experienced, and his identity. Copyright © Springer-Verlag 2010.


Ndiath M.O.,Groupe G4 Institute Pasteur International Network | Ndiath M.O.,British Petroleum | Cailleau A.,Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques | Orlandi-Pradines E.,UMR 6236 | And 5 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2015

Background: Urban malaria is now considered a major emerging health problem in Africa and urban insecticide resistance may represent a serious threat to the ambitious programme of further scaling-up coverage with long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets and indoor residual spray. This study evaluates the levels and mechanisms of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae populations in 44 urban areas of Dakar in a longitudinal entomological surveillance study. Methods: Adult mosquitoes sampled by night-landing catches at 44 sites across Dakar from 2007 to 2010 were genotyped to assess the frequency and distribution of resistance alleles. In addition World Health Organization susceptibility tests to six insecticides were performed on F0 adults issuing from immature stages of An. gambiae s.l. sampled in August 2010, 2011 and 2012 in three sites of Dakar: Pikine, Thiaroye and Almadies and repeated in 2012 with three of the insecticides after PBO exposure to test for mechanisms of oxydase resistance. Species, molecular forms and the presence of kdr and ace-1 mutations were assessed by polymerase chain reaction. Results: High frequencies of the kdr-e allele, ranging from 35 to 100 %, were found in Anopheles arabiensis at all 44 sites. The insecticide susceptibility tests indicated sensitivity to bendiocarb in Almadies in 2010 and 2011 and in Yarakh between 2010 and 2012 and sensitivity to fenitrothion in Almadies in 2010. The mortality rate of EE genotype mosquitoes was lower and that of SS mosquitoes was higher than that of SE mosquitoes, while the mortality rate of the SW genotype was slightly higher than that of the SE genotype. Pyperonyl butoxide (PBO) had a significant effect on mortality in Pikine (OR = 1.4, 95 % CI = 1.3-1.5, with mortality of 42-55 % after exposure and 11-17 % without PBO) and Yarakh (OR = 1.6, 95 % CI = 1.4-1.7, with mortality of 68-81 % after exposure and 23-37 % without), but not in Almadies (OR = 1.0, 95 % CI = 0.9-1.1). Conclusion: A high prevalence of kdr-e in West Africa was demonstrated, and knock-down resistance mechanisms predominate although some oxidases mechanisms (cytochrome P450 monooxygenases) also occur. In view of the increased use of insecticides and the proposed role of the kdr gene in the susceptibility of Anopheles to Plasmodium, this finding will significantly affect the success of vector control programmes. © 2015 Ndiath et al.


PubMed | British Petroleum, Groupe G4 Institute Pasteur International Network, UMR 6236, Roslin Institute and Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques
Type: | Journal: Malaria journal | Year: 2015

Urban malaria is now considered a major emerging health problem in Africa and urban insecticide resistance may represent a serious threat to the ambitious programme of further scaling-up coverage with long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets and indoor residual spray. This study evaluates the levels and mechanisms of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae populations in 44 urban areas of Dakar in a longitudinal entomological surveillance study.Adult mosquitoes sampled by night-landing catches at 44 sites across Dakar from 2007 to 2010 were genotyped to assess the frequency and distribution of resistance alleles. In addition World Health Organization susceptibility tests to six insecticides were performed on F0 adults issuing from immature stages of An. gambiae s.l. sampled in August 2010, 2011 and 2012 in three sites of Dakar: Pikine, Thiaroye and Almadies and repeated in 2012 with three of the insecticides after PBO exposure to test for mechanisms of oxydase resistance. Species, molecular forms and the presence of kdr and ace-1 mutations were assessed by polymerase chain reaction.High frequencies of the kdr-e allele, ranging from 35 to 100 %, were found in Anopheles arabiensis at all 44 sites. The insecticide susceptibility tests indicated sensitivity to bendiocarb in Almadies in 2010 and 2011 and in Yarakh between 2010 and 2012 and sensitivity to fenitrothion in Almadies in 2010. The mortality rate of EE genotype mosquitoes was lower and that of SS mosquitoes was higher than that of SE mosquitoes, while the mortality rate of the SW genotype was slightly higher than that of the SE genotype. Pyperonyl butoxide (PBO) had a significant effect on mortality in Pikine (OR = 1.4, 95 % CI = 1.3-1.5, with mortality of 42-55 % after exposure and 11-17 % without PBO) and Yarakh (OR = 1.6, 95 % CI = 1.4-1.7, with mortality of 68-81 % after exposure and 23-37 % without), but not in Almadies (OR = 1.0, 95 % CI = 0.9-1.1).A high prevalence of kdr-e in West Africa was demonstrated, and knock-down resistance mechanisms predominate although some oxidases mechanisms (cytochrome P450 monooxygenases) also occur. In view of the increased use of insecticides and the proposed role of the kdr gene in the susceptibility of Anopheles to Plasmodium, this finding will significantly affect the success of vector control programmes.


Zimmermann M.B.,ETH Zurich | Zimmermann M.B.,Wageningen University | Chassard C.,ETH Zurich | Rohner F.,ETH Zurich | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2010

Background: Iron is essential for the growth and virulence of many pathogenic enterobacteria, whereas beneficial barrier bacteria, such as lactobacilli, do not require iron. Thus, increasing colonic iron could select gut microbiota for humans that are unfavorable to the host. Objective: The objective was to determine the effect of iron forti-fication on gut microbiota and gut inflammation in African children. Design: In a 6-mo, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, 6-14-y-old Ivorian children (n = 139) received iron-fortified biscuits, which contained 20 mg Fe/d, 4 times/wk as electrolytic iron or nonfortified biscuits. We measured changes in hemoglobin concentrations, inflammation, iron status, helminths, diarrhea, fecal calprotectin concentrations, and microbiota diversity and composition (n = 60) and the prevalence of selected enteropathogens. Results: At baseline, there were greater numbers of fecal enterobacteria than of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria (P < 0.02). Iron fortification was ineffective; there were no differences in iron status, anemia, or hookworm prevalence at 6 mo. The fecal microbiota was modified by iron fortification as shown by a significant increase in profile dissimilarity (P < 0.0001) in the iron group as compared with the control group. There was a significant increase in the number of enterobacteria (P < 0.005) and a decrease in lactobacilli (P < 0.0001) in the iron group after 6 mo. In the iron group, there was an increase in the mean fecal calprotectin concentration (P < 0.01), which is a marker of gut inflammation, that correlated with the increase in fecal enterobacteria (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Anemic African children carry an unfavorable ratio of fecal enterobacteria to bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, which is increased by iron fortification. Thus, iron fortification in this population produces a potentially more pathogenic gut microbiota profile, and this profile is associated with increased gut inflammation. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN21782274. © 2010 American Society for Nutrition.


Keiser J.,Swiss Tropical Institute | N'Guessan N.A.,Laboratoire Of Zoologie Et Biologie Animale | Adoubryn K.D.,University Of Cocody Abidjan | Silue K.D.,Laboratoire Of Zoologie Et Biologie Animale | And 6 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Background. Morbidity control of schistosomiasis relies on a single drug, praziquantel. The antimalarial drug mefloquine possesses interesting antischistosomal properties, yet no clinical studies have been performed. Methods. We conducted a randomized, exploratory open-label trial to assess the efficacy and safety of mefloquine (25 mg/kg), artesunate (3 doses of 4 mg/kg), mefloquine-artesunate (3 doses of 100 mg artesunate plus 250 mg mefloquine), and praziquantel (40 mg/kg) against Schistosoma haematobium. The effects on Schistosoma mansoni, malaria parasitemia, soil-transmitted helminths, and intestinal protozoa were also determined. Results. A total of 83 S. haematobium-infected schoolchildren were included in the study. Cure rates of mefloquine, artesunate, mefloquine-artesunate, and praziquantel against S. haematobium at day 26 after treatment were 21%, 25%, 61 %, and 88%, respectively. Both mefloquine-artesunate and praziquantel resulted in egg reduction rates >95%. Significantly lower egg reduction rates were seen in the artesunate (85%) and mefloquine groups (74%). In children coinfected with S. mansoni, praziquantel and mefloquine-artesunate, but not mefloquine and artesunate alone, resulted in high cure rates and egg reduction rates. Mefloquine, artesunate, and mefloquineartesunate completely cured infections due to Plasmodium falciparum. No effects were found against soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa. Abdominal pain was the most frequent adverse event, with a higher incidence among children treated with mefloquine (89%), mefloquine-artesunate (83%), and artesunate (60%) than among children treated with praziquantel (46%). Conclusions. The high efficacy of mefloquine-artesunate against S. haematobium warrants further investigation. Individuals coinfected with Plasmodium and Schistosoma who were treated with a mefloquine-artesunate combination against malaria might have a dual benefit: clearance of malaria parasitemia and reduction of schistosomiasisrelated morbidity. Clinical trials registration. Current Controlled Trials identifier: ISRCTN06498763. © 2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.


Schur N.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Schur N.,University of Basel | Gosoniu L.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Gosoniu L.,University of Basel | And 7 more authors.
Statistics in Medicine | Year: 2011

Background: The need to deliver interventions targeting multiple diseases in a cost-effective manner calls for integrated disease control efforts. Consequently, maps are required that show where the risk of co-infection is particularly high. Co-infection risk is preferably estimated via Bayesian geostatistical multinomial modelling, using data from surveys screening for multiple infections simultaneously. However, only few surveys have collected this type of data. Methods: Bayesian geostatistical shared component models (allowing for covariates, disease-specific and shared spatial and non-spatial random effects) are proposed to model the geographical distribution and burden of co-infection risk from single-disease surveys. The ability of the models to capture co-infection risk is assessed on simulated data sets based on multinomial distributions assuming light- and heavy-dependent diseases, and a real data set of Schistosoma mansoni-hookworm co-infection in the region of Man, Côte d'Ivoire. The data were restructured as if obtained from single-disease surveys. The estimated results of co-infection risk, together with independent and multinomial model results, were compared via different validation techniques. Results: The results showed that shared component models result in more accurate estimates of co-infection risk than models assuming independence in settings of heavy-dependent diseases. The shared spatial random effects are similar to the spatial co-infection random effects of the multinomial model for heavy-dependent data. Conclusions: In the absence of true co-infection data geostatistical shared component models are able to estimate the spatial patterns and burden of co-infection risk from single-disease survey data, especially in settings of heavy-dependent diseases. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Frohlich M.,Max Planck Institute for Ornithology (Seewiesen) | Wittig R.M.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology | Wittig R.M.,Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques | Pika S.,Max Planck Institute for Ornithology (Seewiesen)
Animal Cognition | Year: 2016

It is well established that great apes communicate via intentionally produced, elaborate and flexible gestural means. Yet relatively little is known about the most fundamental steps into this communicative endeavour—communicative exchanges of mother–infant dyads and gestural acquisition; perhaps because the majority of studies concerned captive groups and single communities in the wild only. Here, we report the first systematic, quantitative comparison of communicative interactions of mother–infant dyads in two communities of wild chimpanzees by focusing on a single communicative function: initiation of carries for joint travel. Over 156 days of observation, we recorded 442 actions, 599 cases of intentional gesture production, 51 multi-modal combinations and 80 vocalisations in the Kanyawara community, Kibale National Park, Uganda, and the Taï South community, Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. Our results showed that (1) mothers and infants differed concerning the signal frequency and modality employed to initiate joint travel, (2) concordance rates of mothers’ gestural production were relatively low within but also between communities, (3) infant communicative development is characterised by a shift from mainly vocal to gestural means, and (4) chimpanzee mothers adjusted their signals to the communicative level of their infants. Since neither genetic channelling nor ontogenetic ritualization explains our results satisfactorily, we propose a revised theory of gestural acquisition, social negotiation, in which gestures are the output of social shaping, shared understanding and mutual construction in real time by both interactants. © 2016, The Author(s).


Campbell G.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology | Kuehl H.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology | Diarrassouba A.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology | Goran P.K.N'.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology | And 4 more authors.
Biology Letters | Year: 2011

The presence of researchers, ecotourists or rangers inside protected areas is generally assumed to provide a protective effect for wildlife populations, mainly by reducing poaching pressure. However, this assumption has rarely been empirically tested. Here, we evaluate and quantify the conservation benefits of the presence of a longterm research area in Taï National Park, Cote d'Ivoire. A wildlife survey following 225 km of line transects revealed considerably higher primate and duiker encounter rates within the research area when compared with adjacent areas. This positive effect was particularly pronounced for threatened and over-harvested species, such as the endangered red colobus monkey (Procolobus badius). This pattern was clearly mirrored by a reversed gradient in signs of poaching, which decreased towards and inside the research area, a trend that was also supported with park-wide data. This study demonstrates that even relatively simple evidence-based analytical approaches can bridge the gap between conservation theory and practice. In addition, it emphasizes the value of establishing long-termresearch sites as an integral part of protected area management. © 2011 The Royal Society.


Luncz L.V.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology | Luncz L.V.,University of Oxford | Wittig R.M.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology | Wittig R.M.,Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques | Boesch C.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2015

Recovering evidence of past human activities enables us to recreate behaviour where direct observations are missing. Here,we apply archaeological methods to further investigate cultural transmission processes in percussive tool use among neighbouring chimpanzee communities in the Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire, West Africa. Differences in the selection of nut-cracking tools between neighbouring groups are maintained over time, despite frequent female transfer, which leads to persistent cultural diversity between chimpanzee groups. Through the recovery of used tools in the suggested natal territory of immigrants, we have been able to reconstruct the tool material selection of females prior to migration. In combination with direct observations of tool selection of local residents and immigrants after migration,we uncovered temporal changes in tool selection for immigrating females. After controlling for ecological differences between territories of immigrants and residents our data suggest that immigrants abandoned their previous tool preference and adopted the pattern of their new community, despite previous personal proficiency of the same foraging task. Our study adds to the growing body of knowledge on the importance of conformist tendencies in animals. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

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