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Zimmermann M.B.,ETH Zurich | Zimmermann M.B.,Wageningen University | Chassard C.,ETH Zurich | Rohner F.,ETH Zurich | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2010

Background: Iron is essential for the growth and virulence of many pathogenic enterobacteria, whereas beneficial barrier bacteria, such as lactobacilli, do not require iron. Thus, increasing colonic iron could select gut microbiota for humans that are unfavorable to the host. Objective: The objective was to determine the effect of iron forti-fication on gut microbiota and gut inflammation in African children. Design: In a 6-mo, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, 6-14-y-old Ivorian children (n = 139) received iron-fortified biscuits, which contained 20 mg Fe/d, 4 times/wk as electrolytic iron or nonfortified biscuits. We measured changes in hemoglobin concentrations, inflammation, iron status, helminths, diarrhea, fecal calprotectin concentrations, and microbiota diversity and composition (n = 60) and the prevalence of selected enteropathogens. Results: At baseline, there were greater numbers of fecal enterobacteria than of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria (P < 0.02). Iron fortification was ineffective; there were no differences in iron status, anemia, or hookworm prevalence at 6 mo. The fecal microbiota was modified by iron fortification as shown by a significant increase in profile dissimilarity (P < 0.0001) in the iron group as compared with the control group. There was a significant increase in the number of enterobacteria (P < 0.005) and a decrease in lactobacilli (P < 0.0001) in the iron group after 6 mo. In the iron group, there was an increase in the mean fecal calprotectin concentration (P < 0.01), which is a marker of gut inflammation, that correlated with the increase in fecal enterobacteria (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Anemic African children carry an unfavorable ratio of fecal enterobacteria to bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, which is increased by iron fortification. Thus, iron fortification in this population produces a potentially more pathogenic gut microbiota profile, and this profile is associated with increased gut inflammation. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN21782274. © 2010 American Society for Nutrition. Source

Utzinger J.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Botero-Kleiven S.,Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control | Castelli F.,University of Brescia | Chiodini P.L.,Hospital for Tropical Diseases | And 11 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2010

The present study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of different European reference laboratories in diagnosing helminths and intestinal protozoa, using an ether-concentration method applied to sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF)-preserved faecal samples. In total, 102 stool specimens were analysed during a cross-sectional parasitological survey in urban farming communities in Côte d'Ivoire. Five SAF-preserved faecal samples were prepared from each specimen and forwarded to the participating reference laboratories, processed and examined under a microscope adhering to a standard operating procedure (SOP). Schistosoma mansoni (cumulative prevalence: 51.0%) and hookworm (cumulative prevalence: 39.2%) were the predominant helminths. There was excellent agreement (γ > 0.8; p < 0.001) among the reference laboratories for the diagnosis of S. mansoni, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides. Moderate agreement (γ = 0.54) was found for Hymenolepis nana, and lesser agreement was observed for other, less prevalent helminths. The predominant intestinal protozoa were Entamoeba coli (median prevalence: 67.6%), Blastocystis hominis (median prevalence: 55.9%) and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (median prevalence: 47.1%). Substantial agreement among reference laboratories was found for E. coli (γ = 0.69), but only fair or moderate agreement was found for other Entamoeba species, Giardia intestinalis and Chilomastix mesnili. There was only poor agreement for B. hominis, Isospora belli and Trichomonas intestinalis. In conclusion, although common helminths were reliably diagnosed by European reference laboratories, there was only moderate agreement between centres for pathogenic intestinal protozoa. Continued external quality assessment and the establishment of a formal network of reference laboratories is necessary to further enhance both accuracy and uniformity in parasite diagnosis. © 2009 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2009 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Source

Frohlich M.,Max Planck Institute for Ornithology (Seewiesen) | Wittig R.M.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology | Wittig R.M.,Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques | Pika S.,Max Planck Institute for Ornithology (Seewiesen)
Animal Cognition | Year: 2016

It is well established that great apes communicate via intentionally produced, elaborate and flexible gestural means. Yet relatively little is known about the most fundamental steps into this communicative endeavour—communicative exchanges of mother–infant dyads and gestural acquisition; perhaps because the majority of studies concerned captive groups and single communities in the wild only. Here, we report the first systematic, quantitative comparison of communicative interactions of mother–infant dyads in two communities of wild chimpanzees by focusing on a single communicative function: initiation of carries for joint travel. Over 156 days of observation, we recorded 442 actions, 599 cases of intentional gesture production, 51 multi-modal combinations and 80 vocalisations in the Kanyawara community, Kibale National Park, Uganda, and the Taï South community, Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. Our results showed that (1) mothers and infants differed concerning the signal frequency and modality employed to initiate joint travel, (2) concordance rates of mothers’ gestural production were relatively low within but also between communities, (3) infant communicative development is characterised by a shift from mainly vocal to gestural means, and (4) chimpanzee mothers adjusted their signals to the communicative level of their infants. Since neither genetic channelling nor ontogenetic ritualization explains our results satisfactorily, we propose a revised theory of gestural acquisition, social negotiation, in which gestures are the output of social shaping, shared understanding and mutual construction in real time by both interactants. © 2016, The Author(s). Source

Keiser J.,Swiss Tropical Institute | N'Guessan N.A.,Laboratoire Of Zoologie Et Biologie Animale | Adoubryn K.D.,University Of Cocody Abidjan | Silue K.D.,Laboratoire Of Zoologie Et Biologie Animale | And 6 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Background. Morbidity control of schistosomiasis relies on a single drug, praziquantel. The antimalarial drug mefloquine possesses interesting antischistosomal properties, yet no clinical studies have been performed. Methods. We conducted a randomized, exploratory open-label trial to assess the efficacy and safety of mefloquine (25 mg/kg), artesunate (3 doses of 4 mg/kg), mefloquine-artesunate (3 doses of 100 mg artesunate plus 250 mg mefloquine), and praziquantel (40 mg/kg) against Schistosoma haematobium. The effects on Schistosoma mansoni, malaria parasitemia, soil-transmitted helminths, and intestinal protozoa were also determined. Results. A total of 83 S. haematobium-infected schoolchildren were included in the study. Cure rates of mefloquine, artesunate, mefloquine-artesunate, and praziquantel against S. haematobium at day 26 after treatment were 21%, 25%, 61 %, and 88%, respectively. Both mefloquine-artesunate and praziquantel resulted in egg reduction rates >95%. Significantly lower egg reduction rates were seen in the artesunate (85%) and mefloquine groups (74%). In children coinfected with S. mansoni, praziquantel and mefloquine-artesunate, but not mefloquine and artesunate alone, resulted in high cure rates and egg reduction rates. Mefloquine, artesunate, and mefloquineartesunate completely cured infections due to Plasmodium falciparum. No effects were found against soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa. Abdominal pain was the most frequent adverse event, with a higher incidence among children treated with mefloquine (89%), mefloquine-artesunate (83%), and artesunate (60%) than among children treated with praziquantel (46%). Conclusions. The high efficacy of mefloquine-artesunate against S. haematobium warrants further investigation. Individuals coinfected with Plasmodium and Schistosoma who were treated with a mefloquine-artesunate combination against malaria might have a dual benefit: clearance of malaria parasitemia and reduction of schistosomiasisrelated morbidity. Clinical trials registration. Current Controlled Trials identifier: ISRCTN06498763. © 2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. Source

Ndiath M.O.,Groupe G4 Institute Pasteur International Network | Ndiath M.O.,British Petroleum | Cailleau A.,Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques | Orlandi-Pradines E.,UMR 6236 | And 5 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2015

Background: Urban malaria is now considered a major emerging health problem in Africa and urban insecticide resistance may represent a serious threat to the ambitious programme of further scaling-up coverage with long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets and indoor residual spray. This study evaluates the levels and mechanisms of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae populations in 44 urban areas of Dakar in a longitudinal entomological surveillance study. Methods: Adult mosquitoes sampled by night-landing catches at 44 sites across Dakar from 2007 to 2010 were genotyped to assess the frequency and distribution of resistance alleles. In addition World Health Organization susceptibility tests to six insecticides were performed on F0 adults issuing from immature stages of An. gambiae s.l. sampled in August 2010, 2011 and 2012 in three sites of Dakar: Pikine, Thiaroye and Almadies and repeated in 2012 with three of the insecticides after PBO exposure to test for mechanisms of oxydase resistance. Species, molecular forms and the presence of kdr and ace-1 mutations were assessed by polymerase chain reaction. Results: High frequencies of the kdr-e allele, ranging from 35 to 100 %, were found in Anopheles arabiensis at all 44 sites. The insecticide susceptibility tests indicated sensitivity to bendiocarb in Almadies in 2010 and 2011 and in Yarakh between 2010 and 2012 and sensitivity to fenitrothion in Almadies in 2010. The mortality rate of EE genotype mosquitoes was lower and that of SS mosquitoes was higher than that of SE mosquitoes, while the mortality rate of the SW genotype was slightly higher than that of the SE genotype. Pyperonyl butoxide (PBO) had a significant effect on mortality in Pikine (OR = 1.4, 95 % CI = 1.3-1.5, with mortality of 42-55 % after exposure and 11-17 % without PBO) and Yarakh (OR = 1.6, 95 % CI = 1.4-1.7, with mortality of 68-81 % after exposure and 23-37 % without), but not in Almadies (OR = 1.0, 95 % CI = 0.9-1.1). Conclusion: A high prevalence of kdr-e in West Africa was demonstrated, and knock-down resistance mechanisms predominate although some oxidases mechanisms (cytochrome P450 monooxygenases) also occur. In view of the increased use of insecticides and the proposed role of the kdr gene in the susceptibility of Anopheles to Plasmodium, this finding will significantly affect the success of vector control programmes. © 2015 Ndiath et al. Source

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