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Vinit S.,University of Versailles | Vinit S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Keomani E.,University of Versailles | Keomani E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

High cervical spinal cord injuries lead to permanent respiratory deficits. One preclinical model of respiratory insufficiency in adult rats is the C2 partial injury which causes unilateral diaphragm paralysis. This model allows the investigation of a particular population of respiratory bulbospinal axons which cross the midline at C3-C6 spinal segment, namely the crossed phrenic pathway. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive technique that can be used to study supraspinal descending respiratory pathways in the rat. Interestingly, a lateral C2 injury does not affect the amplitude and latency of the largest motor-evoked potential recorded from the diaphragm (MEPdia) ipsilateral to the injury in response to a single TMS pulse, compared to a sham animal. Although the rhythmic respiratory activity on the contralateral diaphragm is preserved at 7 days post-injury, no diaphragm activity can be recorded on the injured side. However, a profound reorganization of the MEPdia evoked by TMS can be observed. The MEPdia is reduced on the non-injured rather than the injured side. This suggests an increase in ipsilateral phrenic motoneurons excitability. Moreover, correlations between MEPdia amplitude and spontaneous contralateral diaphragmatic activity were observed. The larger diaphragm activity correlated with a larger MEPdia on the injured side, and a smaller MEPdia on the non-injured side. This suggests, for the first time, the occurrence of a functional neuroplasticity process involving changes in motoneuron excitability balance between the injured and non-injured sides at a short postlesional delay. © 2016 Vinit et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source


Vinit S.,University of Versailles | Keomani E.,University of Versailles | Deramaudt T.B.,University of Versailles | Deramaudt T.B.,Csm Center Scientifique Of Monaco | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Respiratory related diseases associated with the neuronal control of breathing represent life-threatening issues and to date, no effective therapeutics are available to enhance the impaired function. The aim of this study was to determine whether a preclinical respiratory model could be used for further studies to develop a non-invasive therapeutic tool applied to rat diaphragmatic neuronal circuitry. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was performed on adult male Sprague-Dawley rats using a human figure-of-eight coil. The largest diaphragmatic motor evoked potentials (MEPdia) were recorded when the center of the coil was positioned 6 mm caudal from Bregma, involving a stimulation of respiratory supraspinal pathways. Magnetic shielding of the coil with mu metal reduced magnetic field intensities and improved focality with increased motor threshold and lower amplitude recruitment curve. Moreover, transynaptic neuroanatomical tracing with pseudorabies virus (applied to the diaphragm) suggest that connections exist between the motor cortex, the periaqueductal grey cell regions, several brainstem neurons and spinal phrenic motoneurons (distributed in the C3-4 spinal cord). These results reveal the anatomical substrate through which supraspinal stimulation can convey descending action potential volleys to the spinal motoneurons (directly or indirectly). We conclude that MEPdia following a single pulse of TMS can be successfully recorded in the rat and may be used in the assessment of respiratory supraspinal plasticity. Supraspinal non-invasive stimulations aimed to neuromodulate respiratory circuitry will enable new avenues of research into neuroplasticity and the development of therapies for respiratory dysfunction associated with neural injury and disease (e.g. spinal cord injury, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). © 2014 Vinit et al. Source

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