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Thierry A.R.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Mouliere F.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Gongora C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Ollier J.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 4 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research

Although circulating DNA (ctDNA) could be an attractive tool for early cancer detection, diagnosis, prognosis, monitoring or prediction of response to therapies, knowledge on its origin, form and rate of release is poor and often contradictory. Here, we describe an experimental system to systematically examine these aspects. Nude mice were xenografted with human HT29 or SW620 colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cells and ctDNA was analyzed by Q-PCR with highly specific and sensitive primer sets at different times post-graft. We could discriminate ctDNA from normal (murine) cells and from mutated and non-mutated tumor (human) cells by using species-specific KRAS or PSAT1 primers and by assessing the presence of the BRAF V600E mutation. The concentration of human (mutated and nonmutated) ctDNA increased significantly with tumor growth. Conversely, and differently from previous studies, low, constant level of mouse ctDNA was observed, thus facilitating the study of mutated and non-mutated tumor derived ctDNA. Finally, analysis of ctDNA fragmentation confirmed the predominance of low-size fragments among tumor ctDNA from mice with bigger tumors. Higher ctDNA fragmentation was also observed in plasma samples from three metastatic CRC patients in comparison to healthy individuals. Our data confirm the predominance of mononucleosomederived fragments in plasma from xenografted animals and, as a consequence, of apoptosis as a source of ctDNA, in particular for tumor-derived ctDNA. Altogether, our results suggest that ctDNA features vary during CRC tumor development and our experimental system might be a useful tool to follow such variations. © The Author(s) 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. Source

Besnard E.,Functional Genomics Institute | Besnard E.,Gladstone | Babled A.,Functional Genomics Institute | Lapasset L.,Functional Genomics Institute | And 6 more authors.
Nature Structural and Molecular Biology

DNA replication is highly regulated, ensuring faithful inheritance of genetic information through each cell cycle. In metazoans, this process is initiated at many thousands of DNA replication origins whose cell type-specific distribution and usage are poorly understood. We exhaustively mapped the genome-wide location of replication origins in human cells using deep sequencing of short nascent strands and identified ten times more origin positions than we expected; most of these positions were conserved in four different human cell lines. Furthermore, we identified a consensus G-quadruplex-forming DNA motif that can predict the position of DNA replication origins in human cells, accounting for their distribution, usage efficiency and timing. Finally, we discovered a cell type-specific reprogrammable signature of cell identity that was revealed by specific efficiencies of conserved origin positions and not by the selection of cell type-specific subsets of origins. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Arsic N.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Arsic N.,Montpellier University | Bendris N.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Bendris N.,Montpellier University | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Cell Biology

Cyclin A2 plays a key role in cell cycle regulation. It is essential in embryonic cells and in the hematopoietic lineage yet dispensable in fibroblasts. In this paper, we demonstrate that Cyclin A2-depleted cells display a cortical distribution of actin filaments and increased migration. These defects are rescued by restoration of wild-type Cyclin A2, which directly interacts with RhoA, or by a Cyclin A2 mutant unable to associate with Cdk. In vitro, Cyclin A2 potentiates the exchange activity of a RhoA-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Consistent with this, Cyclin A2 depletion enhances migration of fibroblasts and invasiveness of transformed cells via down-regulation of RhoA activity. Moreover, Cyclin A2 expression is lower in metastases relative to primary colon adenocarcinoma in matched human tumors. All together, these data show that Cyclin A2 negatively controls cell motility by promoting RhoA activation, thus demonstrating a novel Cyclin A2 function in cytoskeletal rearrangements and cell migration. © 2012 Arsic et al. Source

Prieur A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Besnard E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Babled A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Lemaitre J.-M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Lemaitre J.-M.,Center Regional Of Lutte Contre Le Cancer Val Daurelle Paul Lamarque
Nature Communications

Senescence is triggered by various cellular stresses that result in genomic lesions and DNA damage response activation. However, the role of chromatin and DNA replication in senescence induction remains elusive. Here we show that downregulation of p300 histone acetyltransferase activity induces senescence by a mechanism that is independent of the activation of p53, p21 CIP1 and p16INK4A . This inhibition leads to a global H3, H4 hypoacetylation, initiating senescence-associated heterochromatic foci formation during S phase, together with a global decrease in replication fork velocity, and alteration of DNA replication timing. This replicative stress occurs without DNA damage and checkpoint activation, but results in a robust G2/M cell cycle arrest, within only one cell cycle. These results provide new insights into the control of S-phase progression by p300, and identify an unexpected chromatin-dependent alternative mechanism for senescence induction, which could possibly be exploited to treat cancer by senescence induction without generating further DNA damage. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Mouliere F.,Institute Of Recherche En Cancerologie Of Montpellier | Mouliere F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Mouliere F.,Montpellier University | Mouliere F.,Institute Regional du Cancer Montpellier | And 30 more authors.
Translational Oncology

We used a novel method based on allele-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Intplex) for the analysis of circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) to compare total ccfDNA and KRAS- or BRAF-mutated ccfDNA concentrations in blood samples from mice xenografted with the human SW620 colorectal cancer (CRC) cell line and from patients with CRC. Intplex enables single-copy detection of variant alleles down to a sensitivity of ≥0.005 mutant to wild-type ratio. The proportion of mutant allele corresponding to the percentage of tumor-derived ccfDNA was elevated in xenografted mice with KRAS homozygous mutation and varied highly from 0.13% to 68.7% in samples from mutationpositive CRC patients (n = 38). Mutant ccfDNA alleles were quantified in the plasma of every patient at stages II/III and IV with a mean of 8.4% (median, 8.4%) and 21.8% (median, 12.4%), respectively. Twelve of 38 (31.6%) and 5 of 38 (13.2%) samples showed a mutation load higher than 25%and 50%, respectively. This suggests that an important part of ccfDNA may originate from tumor cells. In addition, we observed that tumor-derived (mutant) ccfDNA was more fragmented than ccfDNA from normal tissues. This observation suggests that the form of tumor-derived and normal ccfDNA could differ. Our approach revealed that allelic dilution is much less pronounced than previously stated, considerably facilitating the noninvasive molecular analysis of tumors. © 2013 Neoplasia Press, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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