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Hetz C.,University of Chile | Hetz C.,Harvard University | Chevet E.,University of Rennes 1 | Chevet E.,Center Regional Of Lutte Contre Le Cancer Eugene Marquis | Oakes S.A.,University of California at San Francisco
Nature Cell Biology | Year: 2015

Stress induced by accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum is observed in many physiological and pathological conditions. To cope with endoplasmic reticulum stress, cells activate the unfolded protein response, a dynamic signalling network that orchestrates the recovery of homeostasis or triggers apoptosis, depending on the level of damage. Here we provide an overview of recent insights into the mechanisms that cells employ to maintain proteostasis and how the unfolded protein response determines cell fate under endoplasmic reticulum stress. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


PubMed | Center Regional Of Lutte Contre Le Cancer Eugene Marquis, Service de radioprotection et de physique medicale, Center Regional Of Lutte Contre Le Cancer Antoine Lacassagne, Institute Of Cancerologie Of Louest and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cancer radiotherapie : journal de la Societe francaise de radiotherapie oncologique | Year: 2015

Image-guided radiation therapy consists in acquiring in-room images to improve patient and mainly tumour set up accuracy. Many devices based on ionising or non-ionising radiations were designed in recent years. The use of such devices is of major importance in the management of patient radiotherapy courses. Those imaging sessions require to clearly define procedures in each radiotherapy department (image modality, acquisition frequency, corrective action, staff training and tasks). A quick review of the different existing image-guided radiation therapy devices is presented. In addition, the results of a French national survey about image-guided radiation therapy are presented: the survey is about both equipment and procedures. A total of 57 radiotherapy departments have participated, representing more than 160 treatment devices. About three linear accelerators out of four are equipped with an image-guiding device. The most common equipment is the CBCT system. Most centres have set up training sessions for the technicians to allow them to analyse online daily images. The management of in-room imaging dose is still under investigation, but many centres use an accounting scheme. While the devices are used to adjust the positioning of patients, in more than half of the centres, the practice had an impact on the choice of clinical and planning target volume margins. This survey led to an inventory in 2015, and could be renewed in some years.


PubMed | Center Regional Of Lutte Contre Le Cancer Leon Berard, Service de radiotherapie, Center Regional Of Lutte Contre Le Cancer Eugene Marquis, Institute Sainte Catherine and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Cancer radiotherapie : journal de la Societe francaise de radiotherapie oncologique | Year: 2016

The prostate external beam radiotherapy techniques are described, when irradiating the prostate or after prostatectomy, with and without pelvic lymph nodes. The following parts are presented: indications of radiotherapy, total dose and fractionation, planning CT image acquisition, volume of interest delineation (target volumes and organs at risk) and margins, Intensity modulated radiotherapy planning and corresponding dose-volume constraints, and finally Image guided radiotherapy.


PubMed | Institute Of Cancerologie Of Lorraine Alexis Vautrin, Center Georges Francois Leclerc, Center Leon Berard, Center Regional Of Lutte Contre Le Cancer Eugene Marquis and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Cancer radiotherapie : journal de la Societe francaise de radiotherapie oncologique | Year: 2016

Prostate brachytherapy techniques are described, concerning both Iodine125high dose rate brachytherapy. The following parts are presented: brachytherapy indications, technical description, immediate postoperative management and post-treatment evaluation, and 4to 6weeks as well as long-term follow-up.


PubMed | Center Regional Of Lutte Contre Le Cancer Eugene Marquis, University of Tours, Institute Sainte Catherine and Institute Of Cancerologie Of Louest Rene Gauducheau
Type: | Journal: Cancer radiotherapie : journal de la Societe francaise de radiotherapie oncologique | Year: 2016

The IGRT is described in its various equipment and implementation. IGRT can be based either on ionizing radiation generating 2D imaging (MV or kV) or 3D imaging (CBCT or MV-CT) or on non-ionizing radiation (ultrasound, optical imaging, MRI or radiofrequency). Adaptive radiation therapy is then presented in its principles of implementation. The function of the technicians for IGRT is then presented and the possible dose delivered by the on-board imaging is discussed. The quality control of IGRT devices is finally described.


Gautier N.,Center Regional Of Lutte Contre Le Cancer Eugene Marquis | Lalonde L.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal Chum | Tran-Thanh D.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal Chum | Khoury M.E.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal Chum | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Radiology | Year: 2013

Purpose: The aim of this study is to describe the clinical and radiological presentation of chronic granulomatous mastitis. Material and methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and radiological data of 11 women with histologically proven chronic granulomatous mastitis (CGM) diagnosed between March 2008 and September 2011. Results: The diagnosis of CGM is often a challenging one that can mimic infectious and malignant breast conditions. Clinically, CGM most commonly presents as a mass, occasionally with associated erythema. The most frequent mammographic presentation is an asymmetric density, while ultrasound most commonly reveals a hypoechoic mass with tubular extensions and a striated echotexture. On MRI, the most specific finding is peripherally enhancing fluid or solid masses with fistulous tract to the skin, although the latter is not commonly encountered. Diagnosis can be reliably obtained by needle core or vacuum-assisted biopsy, and is established pathologically by the identification of granulomatous inflammation without caseous necrosis. CGM is a diagnosis of exclusion after infectious and foreign body causes are ruled out. Treatment options include oral steroids or surgery; both options are associated with similar recurrence rates. The disease tends to burn itself out and the option of conservative management with observation is a valid one. Conclusion: CGM is a rare benign disease with no specific features clinically or at imaging. There are no radiologic findings that are specific of CGM, but in the appropriate clinical setting, the diagnosis can be suggested by the radiologist. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


Maurel M.,VIB | Maurel M.,Ghent University | Chevet E.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | Chevet E.,Center Regional Of Lutte Contre Le Cancer Eugene Marquis | And 4 more authors.
Trends in Biochemical Sciences | Year: 2014

Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) is the most conserved transducer of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a homeostatic response that preserves proteostasis. Intriguingly, via its endoribonuclease activity, IRE1 produces either adaptive or death signals. This occurs through both unconventional splicing of XBP1 mRNA and regulated IRE1-dependent decay of mRNA (RIDD). Whereas XBP1 mRNA splicing is cytoprotective in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, RIDD has revealed many unexpected features. For instance, RIDD cleaves RNA at an XBP1-like consensus site but with an activity divergent from XBP1 mRNA splicing and can either preserve ER homeostasis or induce cell death. Here we review recent findings on RIDD and propose a model of how IRE1 RNase activity might control cell fate decisions. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Clavreul A.,University of Angers | Clavreul A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Clavreul A.,Angers University Hospital Center | Guette C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Pathology | Year: 2014

Glioblastoma (GB) displays diffusely infiltrative growth patterns. Dispersive cells escape surgical resection and contribute to tumour recurrence within a few centimeters of the resection cavity in 90% of cases. We know that the non-neoplastic stromal compartment, in addition to infiltrative tumour cells, plays an active role in tumour recurrence. We isolated a new stromal cell population from the histologically normal surgical margins of GB by computer-guided stereotaxic biopsies and primary culture. These GB-associated stromal cells (GASCs) share phenotypic and functional properties with the cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) described in the stroma of carcinomas. In particular, GASCs have tumour-promoting effects on glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. Here, we describe a quantitative proteomic analysis, using iTRAQ labelling and mass spectrometry, to compare GASCs with control stromal cells derived from non-GB peripheral brain tissues. A total of 1077 proteins were quantified and 67 proteins were found to differ between GASCs and control stromal cells. Several proteins changed in GASCs are related to a highly motile myofibroblast phenotype, and to wound healing and angiogenesis. The results for several selected proteins were validated by western blotting or flow cytometry. Furthermore, the effect of GASCs on angiogenesis was confirmed using the orthotopic U87MG glioma model. In conclusion, GASCs, isolated from GB histologically normal surgical margins and found mostly near blood vessels, could be a vascular niche constituent establishing a permissive environment, facilitating angiogenesis and possibly colonization of recurrence-initiating cells. We identify various proteins as being expressed in GASCs: some of these proteins may serve as prognostic factors for GB and/or targets for anti-glioma treatment. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Manie S.N.,University of Lyon | Lebeau J.,University of Lyon | Chevet E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Chevet E.,Center Regional Of Lutte Contre Le Cancer Eugene Marquis
American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology | Year: 2014

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) is an adaptive mechanism that is activated upon accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER and aims at restoring ER homeostasis. In the past 10 years, the UPR has emerged as an important actor in the different phases of tumor growth. The UPR is transduced by three major ER resident stress sensors, which are protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), and inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1). The signaling pathways elicited by those stress sensors have connections with metabolic pathways and with other plasma membrane receptor signaling networks. As such, the ER has an essential position as a signal integrator in the cell and is instrumental in the different phases of tumor progression. Herein, we describe and discuss the characteristics of an integrated signaling network that might condition the UPR biological outputs in a tissue- or stress-dependent manner. We discuss these issues in the context of the pathophysiological roles of UPR signaling in cancers. © 2014 the American Physiological Society.


PubMed | Center Regional Of Lutte Contre Le Cancer Eugene Marquis and Institute Sainte Catherine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cancer radiotherapie : journal de la Societe francaise de radiotherapie oncologique | Year: 2016

The delegation of the on board imaging position control, from the radiation oncologist to the therapist, is justified by the generalization of the image-guided radiotherapy techniques which are particularly time consuming. This delegation is however partial. Indeed, the validation of the position by the therapist can be clearly performed when the registration is based on bony landmark or fiducial. The radiation oncologist needs however to make the validation in case of large target displacement, in more complex soft tissue-based registration, and in case of stereotactic body radiation therapy. Moreover, this delegation implies at least three conditions which are first the training of the staff, then the formalization of the procedures, responsibilities and delegations and finally, the evaluation of the practices of IGRT.

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