Riu A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Grimaldi M.,Ircm Institute Of Recherche En Cancerologie Of Montpellier |
Grimaldi M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Grimaldi M.,Montpellier University |
And 17 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2011
Background: The occurrence of halogenated analogs of the xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) has been recently demonstrated both in environmental and human samples. These analogs include brominated [e.g., tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA)] and chlorinated [e.g., tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA)] bisphenols, which are both flame retardants. Because of their structural homology with BPA, such chemicals are candidate endocrine disruptors. However, their possible target(s) within the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily has remained unknown. Objectives: We investigated whether BPA and its halogenated analogs could be ligands of estrogen receptors (ERs) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Methods: We studied the activity of compounds using reporter cell lines expressing ERs and PPARs. We measured the binding affinities to PPARγ by competitive binding assays with [3H]-rosiglitazone and investigated the impact of TBBPA and TCBPA on adipocyte differentiation using NIH3T3-L1 cells. Finally, we determined the binding mode of halogenated BPAs to PPARγ by X-ray crystallography. Results: We observed that TBBPA and TCBPA are human, zebrafish, and Xenopus PPARγ ligands and determined the mechanism by which these chemicals bind to and activate PPARγ. We also found evidence that activation of ERα, ERβ, and PPARγ depends on the degree of halogenation in BPA analogs. We observed that the bulkier brominated BPA analogs, the greater their capability to activate PPARγ and the weaker their estrogenic potential. Conclusions: Our results strongly suggest that polyhalogenated bisphenols could function as obesogens by acting as agonists to disrupt physiological functions regulated by human or animal PPARγ.
Docquier A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Docquier A.,Montpellier University |
Docquier A.,Crlc Center Regional Of Lutte Contre Le Cancer Val Daurelle Paul Lamarque |
Augereau P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
And 23 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
RIP140 is a transcriptional coregulator involved in energy homeostasis and ovulation which is controlled at the transcriptional level by several nuclear receptors. We demonstrate here that RIP140 is a novel target gene of the E2F1 transcription factor. Bioinformatics analysis, gel shift assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrate that the RIP140 promoter contains bona fide E2F response elements. In transiently transfected MCF-7 breast cancer cells, the RIP140 promoter is transactivated by overexpression of E2F1/DP1. Interestingly, RIP140 mRNA is finely regulated during cell cycle progression (5-fold increase at the G1/S and G2/M transitions). The positive regulation by E2F1 requires sequences located in the proximal region of the promoter (-73/+167), involves Sp1 transcription factors, and undergoes a negative feedback control by RIP140. Finally, we show that E2F1 participates in the induction of RIP140 expression during adipocyte differentiation. Altogether, this work identifies the RIP140 gene as a new transcriptional target of E2F1 which may explain some of the effect of E2F1 in both cancer and metabolic diseases. © 2012 Docquier et al.