Erice G.,University of Caen Lower Normandy |
Louahlia S.,Laboratoire Environnement Patrimoine et Developpement Durable |
Alami I.T.,Center Regional Of La Recherche Agronomique Of Rabat |
Avice J.-C.,University of Caen Lower Normandy
Environmental and Experimental Botany | Year: 2011
The predicted worldwide increase in arid areas and water stress episodes will strongly affect crop production. Plants have developed a wide diversity of physiological mechanisms for drought tolerance. A decline in photosynthesis and thus yield production is a common response to drought, as are increases in the water use efficiency of photosynthesis (WUEph) and productivity (WUEp). The aim of our study was to determine the physiological effects (especially WUEph and WUEp) of progressive drought and subsequent recovery in three cultivars adapted to a Mediterranean climate [Tafilalet (TA), Tierra de Campos (TC), and Moapa (MO)], and another representative from an oceanic climate (Europe (EU)). The accuracy of the relationships between WUEph or WUEp and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ 13C) in shoots was also investigated as a function of water stress intensity. Mild drought (7 days of water withholding) decreased the net CO2 exchange (A), leaf conductance to water (g) and transpiration in EU leading to an increased WUEph. Δ 13C was correlated with WUEp but not with WUEph, probably due to a late decrease in g. After moderate drought (14 days), A and g decreased in all cultivars, increasing WUEph. In this period WUEp also increased. Both WUE parameters were correlated with Δ 13C, which may indicate that the g value at the end of moderate water stress was representative of the growing period. After 21 days, TA was the most productive cultivar but under severe drought conditions there was no difference in DM accumulation among cultivars. After the recovery period, leaf area was increased but not total DM, showing that leaves were the most responsive organs to rewatering. Severe water stress did not decrease WUEph or WUEp, and Δ 13C did not increase after recovery. This absence of a response to severe drought may indicate significant effects on the photosynthetic apparatus after 21 days of withholding water. As for mild drought, WUEp but not WUEph was correlated with Δ 13C, supporting the view that WUEp is a more integrative parameter than WUEph. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Kallida R.,Center Regional Of La Recherche Agronomique Of Rabat |
Zhouri L.,Center Regional Of La Recherche Agronomique Of Rabat |
Zhouri L.,Hassan 1er University |
Volaire F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
And 5 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2016
Under Mediterranean climates, the best strategy to produce rain-fed fodder crops is to develop perennial drought resistant varieties. Summer dormancy present in native germplasm has been shown to confer a high level of survival under severe drought. Nevertheless it has also been shown to be negatively correlated with annual biomass productivity. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlations between summer dormancy and annual biomass productivity related traits and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these traits in a progeny of a summer dormant cocksfoot parent (Kasbah) and a summer active parent (Medly). A total of 283 offspring and the parents were phenotyped for summer dormancy, plant growth rate (PGR) and heading date in Morocco and for maximum leaf elongation rate (LERm) in France. The individuals were genotyped with a total of 325 markers including 59 AFLP, 64 SSR, and 202 DArT markers. The offspring exhibited a large quantitative variation for all measured traits. Summer dormancy showed a negative correlation with both PGR (-0.34 p < 0.005) and LERm (-0.27 p < 0.005). However, genotypes with both a high level of summer dormancy and a high level of PGR were detected in the progeny. One genetic map per parent was built with a total length of 377 and 423 cM for Kasbah and Medly, respectively. Both different and co-localized QTL for summer dormancy and PGR were identified. These results demonstrate that it should be possible to create summer dormant cocksfoot varieties with a high annual biomass productivity. © 2016 Kallida, Zhouri, Volaire, Guerin, Julier, Shaimi, Fakiri and Barre.