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Benidire L.,Cadi Ayyad University | Daoui K.,Center Regional Of La Recherche Agronomique Of Meknes | Fatemi Z.A.,Center Regional Of La Recherche Agronomique Of Meknes | Achouak W.,French Atomic Energy Commission | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Materials and Environmental Science

In arid and semi-arid areas, salinity is one of the main factors responsible for the degradation and reduced productivity of agricultural lands. By their excessive salt concentration, the saline soils constitute an unfavorable environment for the growth of several legume plants. This work aims to compare the germinative behaviour of six varieties of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in salt stress conditions. Seed germination and seedling growth are critical steps of the plant development. Six varieties of faba bean cultivated and marketed in Morocco were tested. The obtained results showed that salinity has a negative impact on the germination and early seedling growth of V. faba. The high levels of salinity increase latency time and reduced the germination behaviour, especially at the concentrations of 150 mM and 200 mM. The final germination rate at 200 mM is 7.5 %, 15 %, 17.5 % and 20 % respectively for VITA, Luz De Otno, Reina Mora and Defes, whereas the germination rate is higher for Aguadulce and Alfia 5 (42.5 % and 67.5 % respectively). Salinity can affect germination by two different effects: the first is reversible osmotic effect and the second is irreversible toxic effect. During our study, we show that the faba bean varieties are affected by osmotic and toxic effects except Aguadulce and Alfia 5 which appear to be affected only by osmotic effect. The growth of faba bean seedlings, cultivated in vitro during 10 days, is also reduced under salinity exposure. The size and the density of the root hairs are also affected. Moreover, we note a change of anatomical structure of roots, resulting in a decrease in beam xylem cells and a decrease in the number of the cortical parenchyma cells. Source

Oufdou K.,Cadi Ayyad University | Benidire L.,Cadi Ayyad University | Lyubenova L.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Daoui K.,Center Regional Of La Recherche Agronomique Of Meknes | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Soil Biology

Grain legumes such as the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) used for human as well as animal nutrition, are of great importance especially in countries under Mediterranean climate like Morocco, which is mainly characterized by semi-arid and arid climates and by saline soils. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of salt stress on growth, nodulation and the enzymes of the glutathione-ascorbate cycle of faba bean plants (Moroccan cultivar "Aguadulce"). The experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions, where faba bean plants were grown under control (nutrient solution) or salt stress conditions (nutrient solution containing 75mM or 150mM of NaCl). The activity of enzymes of the glutathione-ascorbate cycle was studied in leaves and roots of faba bean plants inoculated by rhizobia RhOF4 or RhOF6, isolated from nodules of faba bean cultures in the region of Marrakech. The growth of faba bean plants decreased with increasing salt concentrations. Total weight and length of shoots significantly decreased under NaCl stress (p<0.05), especially at 150mM. Also the nodulation of the roots was strongly decreased under salinity stress, with reductions of 91.35% and of 88.67% in the total nodule number of plants exposed to 150mM of NaCl and inoculated by RhOF4 and by RhOF6 respectively. NaCl effects on the glutathione-ascorbate cycle were more pronounced in roots inoculated by RhOF6. Stress responding glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was generally increased in roots inoculated by RhOF6 and submitted to salt stress. On the contrary, specific activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPOX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) were reduced in roots of faba bean plants inoculated by RhOF6 exposed to saline treatment as compared to the controls. Our results show the importance of several enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle and the reduced glutathione (GSH) during some faba bean-rhizobia symbiotic combinations, in root defence and adaptation against salt stress conditions. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

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