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News Article | November 3, 2016
Site: www.prweb.com

The EB-5 Insights blog from global law firm Greenberg Traurig, LLP has been has been selected as a nominee in The Expert Institute’s Best Legal Blog Competition. From a field of hundreds of potential nominees, EB-5 Insights received enough nominations to join one of the largest competitions for legal blog writing online today, according to contest administrator The Expert Institute. Each blog will compete for rank within its category, while the three blogs that receive the most votes in any category will be crowned overall winners. The competition runs until the close of voting at 12:00 a.m. on November 14, at which point the votes will be tallied and the winners announced. To cast a vote for EB-5 Insights, visit the voting link (the voting is optimized for personal and mobile devices): https://www.theexpertinstitute.com/legal-blog/eb-5-insights/ Kate Kalmykov, a shareholder at Greenberg Traurig, is the EB-5 Insights editor. Kalmykov works with developers, private equity funds and organizations on developing projects that qualify for EB-5 investments. This includes creation of Regional Centers, having projects adopted by existing centers and individual EB-5s. Kalmykov regularly helps to prepare I-924 amendments, exemplar petitions, and develops compliance programs. She also counsels foreign nationals on individual or Regional Center EB-5s, as well as issues related to I-829 Removal of Conditions. “We take very seriously the integrity of the information we publish on EB-5 Insights and we are pleased to be recognized among the best,” Kalmykov said. Ranked among the top Immigration practices in the United States by Chambers and Partners in its 2015 Chambers Global guide, Greenberg Traurig’s Business Immigration & Compliance Group regularly works with clients to establish Regional Centers from start to finish. Greenberg Traurig, LLP is an international, multi-practice law firm with approximately 2000 attorneys serving clients from 38 offices in the United States, Latin America, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. The firm is No 1. on the 2015 Law360 Most Charitable Firms list, second largest in the U.S. on the 2016 Law360 400, Top 20 on the 2015 Am Law Global 100, and among the 2015 BTI Brand Elite. More information at: http://www.gtlaw.com/.


News Article | February 23, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

Husson University’s College of Business has signed a 3+3 articulation agreement with the University of Maine School of Law. Under this agreement, students who study for three years at Husson University can then apply for admission to Maine Law’s three-year Juris Doctor (JD) program. Students who complete one year of Maine Law’s JD program will satisfy the remaining requirements for a bachelor’s degree from Husson University. “This is an outstanding opportunity for students interested in furthering their legal education,” said Husson University College of Business Dean Marie Hansen, Ph.D. “Creating this agreement smoothes the transfer of credit process from Husson to Maine Law. We are pleased to be working closely with Maine Law to help ease the transition to law school.” “Maine Law is excited to offer this opportunity to students who are clear about their career goals,” said Caroline Wilshusen, Associate Dean for Admissions at Maine Law. “Maine Law sees this as an opportunity to encourage students throughout Maine to consider a law degree as a path towards leadership and service in their local communities.” Since the new 3+3 agreement was initiated, three students from Husson University have been accepted to Maine Law. The first was Chelsea Broomhall from Saco, Maine. She is currently a junior at Husson University pursuing a Bachelor of Science in legal studies – pre-law degree with a paralegal certificate. Broomhall was recently named to Husson University’s Dean’s List. “I’ve always known that I wanted to go to law school and become an attorney,” says Broomhall. “I started at Husson because I was able to transfer nine credits from Biddeford Regional Center for Technology. That was almost a semester’s worth of classes.” “Participating in the 3+3 program allows me to save a year’s worth of tuition and get into my chosen career field faster,” concluded Broomhall. “I am pleased that the University of Maine School of Law is reaching prospective law students like Chelsea Broomhall,” stated Dean Danielle Conway. “This program was made possible through collaborations with fine institutions like Husson University. I am also thrilled that Ms. Broomhall has taken full advantage of Maine Law's Pre-Law Undergraduate Scholars (PLUS) Program to sharpen her resolve to one day become a lawyer in Maine.” In assessing the significance of this agreement, Margaret Campbell, assistant professor at the School of Legal Studies at Husson University’s College of Business said, “I was a graduate of Maine Law and wish there had been an opportunity like this when I was going to school. As a result of this articulation agreement, students interested in earning a law degree get a great education and save money; both schools increase enrollments, and our state gets quality lawyers who can serve the needs of the public, particularly in underserved areas of the state. Everyone wins.” The University of Maine School of Law, located in the coastal city of Portland, Maine, is a small school with a regional impact and a global reach. As Maine’s public and only law school, Maine Law prepares graduates for careers as leaders inside and outside the traditional legal profession. Maine Law is a community of individuals who are invested in learning and serving, and are diverse in their backgrounds, professional experiences, and interests. Their graduates are prepared on every level for success in fields including law, business, government, and public service. Learn more at mainelaw.maine.edu. For more than 100 years, Husson University has prepared future leaders to handle the challenges of tomorrow through innovative undergraduate and graduate degrees. With a commitment to delivering affordable classroom, online and experiential learning opportunities, Husson University has come to represent superior value in higher education. Our Bangor campus and off-campus satellite education centers in Southern Maine, Wells, and Northern Maine provide advanced knowledge in business; health and education; pharmacy studies; science and humanities; as well as communication. In addition, Husson University has a robust adult learning program. For more information about educational opportunities that can lead to personal and professional success, visit Husson.edu.


L1448 IRS3B was observed with ALMA during Cycle 2 on 27 September 2015 with 33 antennas sampling baselines between 32 and 2,000 m. The observations were executed within a 1.8 h block and the total time spent on L1448 IRS3B was approximately 2.9 min. The precipitable water vapour was approximately 0.7 mm throughout the observing session. The phase calibrator was J0319+4130 (3C84), the bandpass calibrator was J0237+2848, and the amplitude and absolute flux calibrator was the monitored quasar J0238+166. The correlator was configured to observe a 2 GHz continuum band centred at 232.5 GHz, and with 60 MHz bands centred on the following molecular transitions: 12CO (J = 2 → 1), 13CO (J = 2 → 1), C18O (J = 2 → 1), SO (J  = 6 → 5 ), and H CO (J = 3 → 2 ), for which J is the rotational quantum number. The flux calibration accuracy is expected to be better than 10%. The raw data were manually reduced by the North American ALMA Regional Center staff using CASA31 version 4.5.0. We performed self-calibration on the continuum data to increase the signal-to-noise ratio by correcting for short timescale fluctuations in phase and amplitude. The phase and amplitude solutions from the continuum self-calibration were also applied to the spectral line bands. The data were imaged using the clean task within CASA 4.5.0; the ALMA images shown in Fig. 1 were generated using Briggs weighting with a robust parameter of 0.5. Within the clean task, we only include data at uv distances >50,000λ (where uv refers to the coordinate plane in the Fourier domain, versus right ascension–declination in the image domain, and λ refers to wavelength) to mitigate striping in the images from large-scale emission detected on the shortest baseline, which could not be properly imaged. The molecular line images shown in Fig. 2 and Extended Data Figs 1 and 2 were imaged with natural weighting, tapering at 500,000λ with data having uv distances >50,000λ. Tapering reduces the weight of longer-baseline data in the deconvolution to facilitate the detection of larger structures with lower surface brightness. The beam size of the continuum image is 0.27″ × 0.16″ (62 au × 37 au) and the beam size of the molecular line data are 0.36″ × 0.25″ (83 au × 58 au). The resultant noise in the 1.3 mm continuum was 0.14 mJy per beam and 15 mJy per beam in 0.25 km s−1 channels for the spectral line observations. We show the 12CO (J = 2 → 1) and H CO (J = 3 → 2 ) integrated intensity maps in Extended Data Fig. 1. The 12CO map clearly shows an outflow that originates from the region of the three protostars. The redshifted emission shows a clear, wide outflow cavity, with another redshifted feature within it. We suggest that this secondary redshifted feature within the outflow cavity is a jet-like outflow from IRS3B-c and that the arc-like shape is due to the orbital motion of the source. The blue-shifted outflow is much more diffuse and not as well-recovered in our data, but there appears to be emission associated with all three protostars. Nonetheless, it is clear that the outflow map towards these three sources is quite complex and made even more complex by the two more widely separated systems (IRS3A and IRS3C)32 that also drive outflows that extend across this map. The larger-scale outflow has been examined more thoroughly at lower resolution14. We also detect faint H CO emission from the vicinity of L1448 IRS3B, shown in Extended Data Fig. 1. The emission has low intensity, but also shows a velocity gradient in the same direction as 13CO and C18O. SO (J  = 6 → 5 ) emission was not detected towards L1448 IRS3B. H CO is expected to trace the inner envelope and disk around the protostars33 and it is also sometimes present in outflows34. SO has been found to trace both outflow shocks35 and possibly a centrifugal barrier, highlighting a transition between the disk and the infalling envelope of the protostar36, 37. The 13CO (J = 2 → 1) emission traces kinematics similar to that of the higher-velocity C18O, with the blue- and redshifted emission concentrated around IRS3B-a and IRS3B-b. The integrated intensity maps of the red- and blueshifted emission are shown overlaid on the ALMA 1.3 mm continuum image in Extended Data Fig. 2, along with the velocity map derived from the 13CO emission. The 13CO does not extend towards IRS3B-c because of spatial filtering; 13CO is more severely affected by spatial filtering because it is more abundant and has higher opacity than C18O, leading to a wider velocity range that is filtered-out. There is some outflow emission detected in the 13CO, but the apparent rotation of the inner disk(s) around IRS3B-a and IRS3B-b dominates the velocity field for the detected 13CO. Previous studies have also found that 13CO can be a good tracer of the disk kinematics with sufficient spatial resolution to rule out outflow contamination12, 38, 39. To characterize the circumtriple disk, it is necessary to remove the bright protostar IRS3B-c that is located in the outer arm of the disk. IRS3B-c has the largest peak intensity in the system and its presence potentially masks some of the underlying disk structure, in addition to skewing the derivation of system geometry (for example, inclination and position angle). Furthermore, IRS3B-c seems to be internally heated and is likely to be optically thick; the process of removing it from the data therefore enables us to characterize its properties independently of the disk that it is embedded within. To remove IRS3B-c as cleanly as possible, we fit a two-component Gaussian with a constant zero-level offset. The two-component Gaussian is comprised of a point-source component superposed with a more extended Gaussian, and the zero-level offset is used to preserve emission from the disk in the vicinity of IRS3B-c. The fitting region is also restricted to a 0.7″ × 0.6″ ellipse around IRS3B-c, ensuring that the Gaussian fit to IRS3B-c is not strongly affected by the emission in the surrounding, extended disk. We used the imfit task in CASA 4.5.0 to fit the Gaussian components. We then used these components to construct a model image of IRS3B-c within CASA. Next, we used the setjy task to generate visibility data from the model image via a Fourier transform, and then filled the model column of the CASA measurement set with the visibility data. Finally, we use the uvsub task to subtract the model column from the data column, producing a data set with IRS3B-c subtracted. Images with IRS3B-c removed were then generated with clean, and we show the resultant images in Extended Data Fig. 3. With IRS3B-c removed, we fit the major and minor axes of the disk to estimate the inclination with respect to the line of sight and position angle. To do this, we first generated an image from the data set with IRS3B-c subtracted using the CASA clean task, but taper (for example, smooth; see Methods section ‘Observations’) the visibility data to have a resolution of 0.43″ × 0.36″; this image smoothes over the spiral structure such that a single Gaussian can better fit the disk emission from the entire source. We use the imfit task in CASA to fit a single Gaussian, with the centre position fixed at the location of IRS3B-a, which appears to be the most centrally located source in the system. The deconvolved major (θ ) and minor (θ ) axes of the resulting Gaussian were 1.78″ × 1.25″ (409 au × 288 au). Assuming symmetry, this corresponds to an inclination angle of (arccos(θ /θ )) and the position angle is 29.5° east of north. The uncertainty in the inclination results from the disk being asymmetric, as shown by Fig. 1 and Extended Data Fig. 3 (see Methods section ‘Disk surface density’). We estimate that there could be a systematic uncertainty of 20% in the minor axis of the disk because of the disk asymmetry. The dust emission from L1448 IRS3B can be used to estimate the mass of the surrounding disk and the material around IRS3B-c itself. Assuming that the dust around L1448 IRS3B is optically thin, isothermal, and that the gas and dust are well mixed, we can calculate the mass with the equation F is the integrated flux density at 1.3 mm, B is the Planck function and D = 230 pc is the distance to the Perseus molecular cloud15. We adopt T  = 30 K as a typical dust temperature at a radius of 100 au, derived from radiative transfer models40, 41. The disk does have a temperature gradient, but 30 K is a reasonable average value for the outer disk where most of the mass resides. The remaining term κ is the dust opacity at the observed wavelength, which is adopted from dust opacity models. While there are a multitude of possible models to consider42; we adopt two limiting cases for simplicity. The first value is κ  = 0.899 cm2 g−1 (ref. 43), appropriate for dense cores in molecular clouds such as L1448 IRS3B. The second value we adopt is κ  = 2.3 cm2 g−1, which is typically used for protoplanetary disks44, 45. The second value is derived from a parameterization of the dust opacity to have a value of 10.0 cm2 g−1 at λ = 0.3 mm and κ  = 10.0 × (λ/0.3)−β, where β = 1 (refs 44, 45, 46). We then adopt a standard dust to gas mass ratio of 1:100 (ref. 47) and assume that this ratio is constant throughout the disk. We note that the dust to gas ratio may be changing in more-evolved protoplanetary disks45, 48, 49, but we assume the constant, canonical value for this much younger system. Additionally, young protostellar disks may not be optically thin at 1.3 mm, and thus our mass estimates using equation (2) are likely to be lower limits. Note that a higher disk mass would only strengthen our conclusion that the disk is unstable. We show below that analytic models of the disk suggest that the inner parts are becoming opaque at shorter wavelengths. Keeping the assumptions and caveats from the previous paragraph in mind, we can now calculate the masses of the disk surrounding the three protostars. We calculate a total mass of 0.39M for the disk surrounding L1448 IRS 3B, assuming κ  = 0.899 cm2 g−1. Of the total, 0.085M is contained within the concentrated dust around IRS3B-c; note that we adopt T  = 40 K for IRS3B-c as the region directly around it should be warmer and the peak brightness temperature (T ) in the data are approximately 40 K towards this source. This high peak T is indicative of increased opacity in IRS3B-c because T  = T when the emission source is optically thick. Thus, the mass estimate of 0.085M is also likely to be a lower limit because of optical depth effects. If we instead adopt κ  = 2.3 cm2 g−1, assuming that the dust has already grown substantially from the size of interstellar medium as in older protoplanetary disks, we find a total mass of 0.15M (disk plus IRS3B-c) and 0.03M around IRS3B-c alone. To conclude, the higher mass estimates using κ  = 0.899 cm2 g−1 are favoured because that opacity model is meant to reflect the dust typically found in dense molecular clouds. Since L1448 IRS3B is still in a very early stage of the star formation process, the bulk of its dust should reflect the molecular cloud content rather than the dust in protoplanetary disks that has been able to undergo significant dust evolution42, 50. The asymmetry and complexity of the dust continuum around L1448 IRS3B prohibit us from directly fitting symmetric disk models to the data to determine the underlying density structure. However, given that the disk is well resolved, we can empirically determine the azimuthally averaged surface density profile as a function of radius from the data. We first deprojected the visibility data using the inclination of 45.4° and position angle of 29.5°, determined from the Gaussian fitting in Methods section ‘Subtracting the tertiary IRS3B-c’. The uv data are deprojected using standard methods51 that adjust the u and v coordinates based on the geometric projection. We then generate deprojected images using the CASA clean task in the same manner as for the non-deprojected data (see Methods section ‘Observations’). The deprojected image is shown in Extended Data Fig. 3. With the deprojected image, we measure the flux density in a series of circular annuli centred on IRS3B-a; each annulus has a width of half the beam size. Afterwards, we divide the flux density in each annulus by its surface area and converted the surface brightness to a surface density using the methodology described in Methods section ‘Disk mass’, assuming a radial temperature profile that is described in Methods section ‘Stability analysis’. The surface density (Σ) inferred from the observed intensity profile and the assumed temperature profile are shown in Extended Data Fig. 4. It is essential to know the masses of the central protostars (IRS3B-a and IRS3B-b) to quantify the stability of the disk. The angular resolution of the observations is not sufficient to determine the masses of each component of the central pair, and our measurement will be limited to the combined mass of both components. Figure 2 shows the integrated intensity and velocity maps of the C18O (J = 2 → 1) emission and the 13CO (J = 2 → 1) is shown in Extended Data Fig. 2. The maps show clear evidence of rotation, centred on IRS3B-a and IRS3B-b, due to the spatial separation of the blue- and redshifted components. Furthermore, the C18O emission also traces some of the structure observed in the dust emission in the outer disk. To examine the molecular line kinematics, we extract position–velocity (PV) diagrams along the major axis of the disk, centred on IRS3B-a and IRS3B-b. The PV diagram for C18O is shown in Extended Data Fig. 5. The signal-to-noise ratio of the data are not high enough to employ the techniques that have been used to quantitatively measure protostellar masses in other works34, 37, 38, 52, 53, 54. Nevertheless, we can estimate the protostar mass by drawing a Keplerian curve on the PV diagram, accounting for the 45.4° inclination of the system. We find that the combined mass for both IRS3B-a and IRS3B-b is likely to be around 1.0M . We also compare this estimate to a PV diagram of a rotating thin disk model55 with the same central mass and inclination, shown in Extended Data Fig. 4. The thin disk model occupies a very similar domain in PV space as the data. Note that the line we draw in the PV diagrams does not go through the middle of the data, but instead traces the edge of the highest-velocity emission for a given position. This is because observations of a Keplerian disk will measure multiple velocities superposed at a given position and the Keplerian velocity at a given radius only corresponds to the highest velocities53. Thus, the total protostellar mass cannot be substantially larger than 1.0M without being inconsistent with the data. The simplest estimate for when disks are subject to gravitational instability is provided by Toomre’s Q parameter19 where c is the sound speed within the disk, κ is the epicyclic frequency (which is Ω, the angular rotation frequency, for Keplerian disks) and G is the gravitational constant. The quantities c , Ω and Σ are all functions of the radius within a disk. If Q reaches order unity, the disk becomes susceptible to the growth of spiral density waves. Disk fragmentation due to gravitational instability is thought to be the nonlinear outcome of this hydrodynamic instability20. The evolution of disks that are subject to the instability, and in particular their ability to create long-lived, bound objects, is a function of many parameters, including infall from the environment and radiative heating and cooling. The importance of the latter effect can be reasonably well encapsulated by the disk cooling time where σ is the Stefan–Boltzmann constant and γ is the adiabatic index, and where the optical depth τ = κΣ/2 is calculated using the Rosseland mean opacity; the function f (τ) reasonably captures how the accretion energy diffuses from the midplane in the optically thick and thin regimes56. For fragments to survive, the gas must be able to contract by radiating away the heat that is generated by shocks on roughly the orbital timescale57. β is often used in the literature to parameterize cooling via a single dimensionless number to probe disk behaviour in different regimes. Although there is some debate about the critical value of β below which fragmentation successfully produces bound objects58, 59, 60, fragment formation is robust for β < 10. To assess whether IRS3B is a good candidate for disk fragmentation, we generate a set of one-dimensional analytic disk models. Specifically, we calculate Q and cooling time as a function of disk radius. We use the surface density profile derived for the disk after the removal of IRS3B-c (see Methods section ‘Disk surface density’), and treat IRS3B-a and IRS3B-b as equal mass 0.5M protostars (see Methods section ‘Protostar masses’). We use the youngest age available from the models61 (1 Myr) to calculate the stellar radii and intrinsic luminosity. To estimate the disk temperatures, a two component temperature model is used21, 62. The midplane temperature of the disk is found by balancing heating and cooling terms Here F represents the energy flux associated with irradiation from the protostars: where f ≈ 0.1 is based on ray tracing calculations that show that much of the stellar flux impacts the infalling envelope63 and is reprocessed back down onto the disk in embedded sources64. L includes both the model stellar luminosity and the accretion luminosity, which are comparable to each other. F is the energy flux due to dissipation of accretion energy within the disk: where is the mass accretion rate through the disk. We consider two models for disk opacity: a temperature independent opacity of κ = 0.24 cm2 g−1 (ref. 65), and an interpolated model, where roughly κ ∝ T2 (ref. 66). The former model is more consistent with grain growth beyond millimetre sizes, while the latter should capture more ISM-like grains. For the disk models presented here the opacity has negligible effect on the disk temperature because it is dominated by stellar irradiation, which sets the disk surface temperature and therefore is unaffected by optical depth. This is typical of unstable protostellar disks20. When the midplane heating is relatively weak, the disk becomes nearly vertically isothermal67. Note that the numerical values for these two models are distinct from those used to derive the disk mass in Methods section ‘Subtracting the tertiary IRS3B-c’ because calculation of equilibrium temperatures analytically requires a mean opacity, rather than the 1.3 mm opacity. We first evaluate the disk properties using temperature independent opacities, and explore the impact of a range of disk accretion rates. Recall that the disk accretion rate contributes both to the local viscous heating through F and the stellar irradiation through F . Once we have calculated the disk temperature, we can then compute Q as a function of radius. We also calculate the disk cooling time to demonstrate that if the disk is unstable, fragments that form could cool quickly and likely remain bound57, 68. We find that the cooling time is well below the critical threshold of around 10Ω−1 throughout the entire disk. The discrepancy between our calculated β values and those quoted in the literature derives mostly from the difference in radius between this disk and standard models with disk radii of <100 au. Reaching Q = 1 at larger radii requires lower values of Σ; t scales roughly as Σ2 in the optically thick regime that is relevant for such disks. In addition, the dimensionless cooling time scales linearly with Ω, which also declines at large radii. In Fig. 3 we show contours of Q as a function of disk radius and model accretion rate. The disk is marginally unstable between 150 and 320 au. While we do not have a direct constraint on , the observed total luminosity provides a benchmark: in a typical viscous accretion disk, the total luminosity is where the second term represents the total accretion luminosity, half of which is liberated within the accretion disk, and half at the stellar surface. Thus we can derive the expected accretion rate assuming that the bolometric luminosity of 3.2L (ref. 16) is equivalent to the internal luminosity. This implies an accretion rate of around 10−7M yr−1, which is consistent with star formation models69 and observations of young stars70, 71. This band is highlighted in Fig. 3. We account for the contributions from both protostars in the irradiation models, assuming that the accretion luminosity is divided equally between the two. Note that the internal luminosity is not precisely equivalent to the bolometric luminosity; the bolometric luminosity is calculated from integrating the observed spectral energy distribution from the near-infrared to the millimetre range. To relate the bolometric luminosity to the internal luminosity, a correction must be applied to account for the geometric projection of the disk and outflow cavities. For an inclination of 45.4° the correction factor is approximately 0.9 (ref. 72). Furthermore, external irradiation can add an additional (0.1–0.5)L to the bolometric luminosity (depending on the local environment); this amount should be subtracted from the bolometric luminosity to relate it to the internal luminosity. However, we do not apply these small corrections given that the uncertainty in the bolometric luminosity is around 10% or greater depending on wavelength coverage70, and these corrections would only lower the internal luminosity (and by inference the accretion rate), causing Q to decrease and imply a greater degree of instability. We next calculate a disk model using a self-consistently derived temperature profile based on the temperature dependent opacities. For simplicity we only consider the benchmark accretion rate . We create a grid of allowed temperatures and identify the radial temperature profile that is consistent with the radiative equilibrium model of equation (6). In Extended Data Fig. 4, we show the derived surface density, temperature Q and β profiles. Once again we find that the disk is marginally unstable at radii in the vicinity of the recently formed tertiary, IRS3B-c. We note that although the surface density profile was derived using the optically thin approximation, our modelling indicates that the innermost regions may be opaque at shorter wavelengths (τ ≈ 2–5). Thus, we are probably underestimating the total disk mass somewhat. This would only corroborate our conclusion that the disk has probably experienced a recent episode of gravitational instability and fragmentation. Finally, we can obtain a rough estimate of the mass scale of a fragment born in such a disk. The most unstable wavelength (that is, the physical scale) on which perturbations grow due to gravitational instability is λ = 2πH (see equation (1)). The typical initial fragment mass is, to an order of magnitude, M  ≈ εΣλ2. Various studies have debated the appropriate order unity coefficient ε to properly account for contraction and spiral arm overdensities73. For ε = 0.5, the fragment mass ranges from 0.005M to 0.015M for distances of 150–320 au for our disk model with an accretion rate of 10−7M yr−1. The ALMA data used to generate Figs 1, 2 and Extended Data Figs 1, 2, 3, 5 are from ALMA project 2013.1.00031.S (https://almascience.eso.org/aq/?project_code=2013.1.00031.S). These data will be available in the ALMA archive and from the corresponding author upon request. The data from which Fig. 3 and Extended Data Fig. 4 were generated are provided as Supplementary Data. The data were reduced and processed using the Common Astronomy Software Applications (CASA) version 4.5.0. The code for generating the model found in Extended Data Fig. 5 is publicly available55. The theoretical calculations presented in Fig. 3 and Extended Data Fig. 4 are derived from solving algebraic equations and thus involve no significant code development.


News Article | November 22, 2016
Site: www.prweb.com

CanAm Enterprises LLC (“CanAm”) is pleased to announce that its 30th EB-5 Partnership Loan from the PIDC Regional Center has repaid on November 22nd, 2016. This marks the milestone of 1,423 investor-families fully repaid, further establishing CanAm as one of the leading sponsors of EB-5 investments. The $45 million EB-5 loan helped finance the redevelopment of a former historic building to a boutique hotel located across the square of the Independent Bell of Philadelphia. An estimate of 1,387 new, permanent jobs were created as a result of the project’s completion. All of the 90 investors and their families have met the job-creating requirement and received residency status. The EB-5 Immigrant Investor Program(“EB-5”) is administered by the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). The Program provides qualified foreign investors with the opportunity to earn “conditional” or temporary two-year visas in return for investing $500,000 in businesses located in high unemployment areas that create or retain at least ten permanent full-time jobs for U.S. workers. In 2003, New York-based CanAm Enterprises partnered with the Philadelphia’s PIDC to create the PIDC Regional Center, which has become one of the most successful EB-5 Regional Centers in the nation. Over the past ten years, PIDC Regional Center has raised $620.5 millions of foreign investment that has helped the economic growth in Philadelphia. CanAm President and CEO Tom Rosenfeld, a Philadelphia native, started this business in Philadelphia following a highly successful similar program in Canada starting in 1987. “In partnership with PIDC, we do exhaustive research to find qualified projects for investment, and we work just as hard to ensure that our borrowers follow the job creation formula required by the EB-5 model,” Rosenfeld said. “We follow the law to the letter. We constantly monitor all of our projects to ensure that the job creation goals are being met, and we work with our investors and the federal government to keep them fully informed about the status of the Regional Center projects.” “The program works,” said PIDC President, John Grady. “It has been invaluable as a resource for investment in Philadelphia projects. The partnership between CanAm and PIDC has succeeded in attracting hundreds of millions of dollars to the city, and we look forward to working together to bring even more investment to Philadelphia in the years to come.” When the CanAm PIDC Regional Center received its designation, it was one of only a handful of active Regional Centers nationwide. Today, there are well over 1,200 designated Regional Centers, and CanAm has also successfully launched Regional Centers in Pennsylvania, Los Angeles, Hawaii, New York, Florida and Texas. “Even as the Program has grown, the CanAm PIDC Regional Center remains one of the pioneers and most enduring success stories. It has been an amazing 13 years, and we are very proud to have been part of some of the most important projects in the Philadelphia region,” added Rosenfeld. PIDC is Philadelphia’s public-private economic development corporation. A non-profit founded in 1958 by the City of Philadelphia and the Greater Philadelphia Chamber of Commerce, PIDC’s mission is to spur investment, support business growth, and foster developments that create jobs, revitalize neighborhoods, and drive growth to every corner of Philadelphia. Over the last 58 years, PIDC has invested nearly $14 billion of financing and more than 3,100 acres of land sales – which has leveraged over $25 billion in total investment and assisted in retaining and creating hundreds of thousands of jobs in Philadelphia. For more information about PIDC, visit http://www.PIDCphila.com and follow us @PIDCphila on Twitter. With three decades of experience promoting immigration-linked investments in the United States and Canada, CanAm has a long and established track record. Based on a reputation of credibility and trust, CanAm has financed more than 53 project loans and raised more than $2.3 billion in EB-5 investments. CanAm exclusively operates seven USCIS-designated Regional Centers that are located in the City of Philadelphia, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the County of Los Angeles, the State of Hawaii, the Metropolitan Region of New York, the State of Florida and the State of Texas. For more information, please visit http://www.canamenterprises.com


News Article | January 20, 2016
Site: phys.org

The new mass-spectral imaging system is the first of its kind in the world and its applications are just beginning to surface, said Carmen Menoni, a University Distinguished Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. A special issue of Optics and Photonics News last month highlights the CSU research among "the most exciting peer-reviewed optics research to have emerged over the past 12 months." Editors identified the imaging device among global "breakthroughs of interest to the optics community." Menoni's group, in collaboration with an interdisciplinary group of faculty, devised and built the instrument with help from students. She found a partner in CSU's renowned Mycobacteria Research Laboratories, which seek new treatments for the global scourge of tuberculosis. The partners described the system in a paper published earlier this year in Nature Communications. Dean Crick, a professor who researches tuberculosis, collaborated with Menoni to refine the mass spectrometer imaging system. He said the instrument will allow him to examine cells at a level 1,000 times smaller than that of a human hair - about 100 times more detailed than was earlier possible. This will give researchers the ability to observe how well experimental drugs penetrate and are processed by cells as new medications are developed to combat disease. Crick's primary research interest is tuberculosis, an infectious respiratory disease that contributes to an estimated 1.5 million deaths around the world each year. "We've developed a much more refined instrument," Crick said. "It's like going from using a dull knife to using a scalpel. You could soak a cell in a new drug and see how it's absorbed, how quickly, and how it affects the cell's chemistry." The earlier generation of laser-based mass-spectral imaging could identify the chemical composition of a cell and could map its surface in two dimensions at the microscale, but could not chart cellular anatomy at the more detailed nanoscale and in 3-D, Crick said. In addition to observing how cells respond to new drugs, he said, researchers could use the technology to identify the sources of pathogens propagated for bioterrorism. The instrument might also be used to investigate new ways to overcome antibiotic resistance among patients with surgical implants. "You might be able to customize treatments for specific cell types in specific conditions," Crick said. The CSU instrument would cover the average dining room table. Its central features are mass-spectral imaging technology and an extreme ultraviolet laser. Jorge Rocca, also a University Distinguished Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, created the laser attached to the spectrometer. Its beam is invisible to the human eye and is generated by an electrical current 20,000 times stronger than that of regular fluorescent tubes in ceiling lights, resulting in a tiny stream of plasma that is very hot and dense. The plasma acts as a gain medium for generating extreme ultraviolet laser pulses. The laser may be focused to shoot into a cell sample; each time the laser drills a tiny hole, miniscule charged particles, or ions, evaporate from the cell surface. These ions then may be separated and identified, allowing scientists to determine chemical composition. The microscopic shrapnel ejected from each hole allows scientists to chart the anatomy of a cell piece by piece, in three dimensions, at a scale never seen before, the scientists said. The project was funded with $1 million from the National Institutes of Health as part of an award to the Rocky Mountain Regional Center of Excellence for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Disease Research. The optical equipment that focuses the laser beam was created by the Center for X-Ray Optics at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, Calif. The CSU system recently received support for system engineering design from Siemens. The company gave the CSU team an academic grant for its NX software package, including 30 seat licenses, valued at $37 million. Other CSU faculty involved in the project include Feng Dong and Elliot Bernstein from the Department of Chemistry. The lead author on the paper published in Nature Communications is Ilya Kuznetsov, a CSU doctoral student in Electrical and Computer Engineering. "The whole system was built by students and post-docs," Menoni said. "This is something we pride ourselves on, that the students get an interdisciplinary experience. Having access to design software such as the Siemens NX package is critical for creating these instruments and for training students." Key to the project has been collaboration among scientists who build high-tech devices and those who use them to solve global problems. "It's been very interesting learning how to communicate with engineers," Crick said. "We don't think alike. They understand the biology about as well as I understand the engineering. But over the years we've learned how to talk to each other, which is nice. I can see the need for the instrument, but I have no idea how to build it. They do." At one end of the instrument is a special laser created in an argon gas-filled tube when a pulse of 60 kilovolts is discharged. "It's like a lightning strike in a nanosecond," said Carmen Menoni, University Distinguished Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. The laser is guided through chambers using mirrors and special lenses that focus it down to a diameter of less than 100 nanometers. In a chamber at the far side of the spectrometer, the laser hits a sample cell placed with the aid of a microscope. "When you're trying to hit a single bacterium with a laser, it's tricky. You have to aim well," said Dean Crick, a CSU professor in the Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology. Once the laser drills a miniscule hole in the cell, charged ions emitted after the tiny explosion are drawn into a side tube using electrostatic fields. The larger mass the charged particle has, the slower it moves down the tube; the time it takes an ion to reach a detector gives scientists information about its mass. "It's like you have a sports car and a big truck," said Ilya Kuznetsov, a doctoral student in Electrical and Computer Engineering. "Imagine you put the same motor in both—they will move at different speeds. And the more you allow them to go, the more they separate. That's why our tube is so long, to allow for that differentiation." A set of special pumps creates high vacuum that sucks all air from the tube, to remove any foreign particles the sample might collide with and to ensure equally smooth sailing for all the ions. "If you want to have a car race, you need to remove all traffic from the roads," Kuznetsov explained. By keeping the charge and amount of energy applied to each particle consistent, the mass becomes the key signature that provides researchers with every ion's chemical identity. A computer program developed in-house generates the data in a color spectrum of masses, which is then used to create a kind of topographical cell composition map. Explore further: Research team refrigerates liquids with a laser for the first time


Dec. 8, 2016 -- (BRONX, NY) --The National Institutes of Health has awarded researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Health System a five-year, $2.9-million grant to launch a new center, one of only 8 in the country, for diabetes translation research. The center -- the New York Regional Center for Diabetes Translation Research (NY Regional CDTR)--also includes faculty from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mt. Sinai and the New York Academy of Medicine and will serve as a collaborative hub for investigators conducting studies on pre-diabetes, diabetes and its complications. The two principal investigators on the grant are Elizabeth A. Walker, Ph.D., R.N., professor of medicine and of epidemiology & population health at Einstein, and Judith Wylie-Rosett, Ed.D., R.D. professor and division head of health promotion and nutrition research in the department of epidemiology & population health, and Atran Foundation Chair in Social Medicine at Einstein. "Our overall goal is to improve the health of people who have diabetes or are at risk for developing it, with a focus on low-income communities and various racial and ethnic groups that are disproportionately affected by the disease and poor access to care," says Dr. Wylie-Rosett. "Einstein and Montefiore have a long-standing commitment to social justice, and this center provides a way for us to share our research expertise with others trying to reduce health disparities and promote health equity." Members of certain ethnic and racial groups -- including Latinos/Hispanics, African-Americans and Asian-Americans -- face a higher risk for developing diabetes than do non-Latino white adults. They are also at increased risk for diabetes-related complications, such as lower limb amputations, vision loss and kidney failure. In addition, diabetes is 70 percent more common in high-poverty neighborhoods than in more affluent ones. This regional research center will concentrate on improving diabetes prevention, care and diabetes self-management education among these groups through research activities. "Our center will support and promote collaborative, innovative programs of research to tailor diabetes interventions for different ethnicities and age groups and to reduce obesity, a major risk factor for diabetes, and make the best use of electronic medical records and telecommunication -- efforts aimed at prevention of diabetes and its complications," says Dr. Walker. "We are particularly excited that the center will include the newly-created Latino Network for Diabetes Translation Research, a joint effort with investigators from the NIH-funded Hispanic Community Health Study (HCHS)/Study of Latinos (SOL)," adds Dr. Walker. Consultative resources within the NY Regional CDTR will support diabetes prevention and control research: across the lifespan; in population health and health systems; and for intervention research methods including biological, behavioral, psychological and social factors. Other key Einstein-Montefiore faculty leaders include: associate center directors Carmen Isasi, M.D., Ph.D. and Jeffrey S. Gonzalez, Ph.D. and co-investigators Carol Derby, Ph.D., M. Diane McKee, M.D., M.S. and Urvashi Patel, Ph.D., M.P.H.. The new center's multidisciplinary members include 77 investigators doing research in diabetes prevention and control from 16 institutions including: Columbia University; Weill Cornell Medical College; Drexel University; University of Massachusetts Medical School at Worcester; New York University; Penn State University; San Diego State University; Scripps Whittier Diabetes Institute; Stanford University; Tufts University; University of California at Irvine; and University of Illinois at Chicago. The grant is titled "The New York Regional Center for Diabetes Translation Research" (P30DK111022). Albert Einstein College of Medicine is one of the nation's premier centers for research, medical education and clinical investigation. During the 2016-2017 academic year, Einstein is home to 717 M.D. students, 166 Ph.D. students, 103 students in the combined M.D./Ph.D. program, and 278 postdoctoral research fellows. The College of Medicine has more than 1,900 full-time faculty members located on the main campus and at its clinical affiliates. In 2016, Einstein received more than $160 million in awards from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). This includes the funding of major research centers)at Einstein in aging, intellectual development disorders, diabetes, cancer, clinical and translational research, liver disease, and AIDS. Other areas where the College of Medicine is concentrating its efforts include developmental brain research, neuroscience, cardiac disease, and initiatives to reduce and eliminate ethnic and racial health disparities. Its partnership with Montefiore Medical Center, the University Hospital and academic medical center for Einstein, advances clinical and translational research to accelerate the pace at which new discoveries become the treatments and therapies that benefit patients. Einstein runs one of the largest residency and fellowship training programs in the medical and dental professions in the United States through Montefiore and an affiliation network involving hospitals and medical centers in the Bronx, Brooklyn and on Long Island. For more information, please visit http://www. , read our blog, follow us on Twitter, like us on Facebook and view us on YouTube. Montefiore Health System is one of New York's premier academic health systems and is a recognized leader in providing exceptional quality and personalized, accountable care to approximately three million people in communities across the Bronx, Westchester and the Hudson Valley. It is comprised of 10 hospitals, including the Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Burke Rehabilitation Hospital and close to 200 outpatient care sites. The advanced clinical and translational research at its' medical school, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, directly informs patient care and improves outcomes. From the Montefiore-Einstein Centers of Excellence in cancer, cardiology and vascular care, pediatrics, and transplantation, to its' preeminent school-based health program, Montefiore is a fully integrated healthcare delivery system providing coordinated, comprehensive care to patients and their families. For more information please visit http://www. . Follow us on Twitter and view us on Facebook and YouTube.


BOSTON--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Fidelity Investments® today announced that Fidelity Health MarketplaceSM, which offers insurance broker services and one-stop access to health and wellness benefits to small and midsized businesses and their employees, has expanded into Colorado. Fidelity Health Marketplace offers employers and their employees year round support and an extensive network of national and regional medical, dental, vision, life and disability benefits in addition to tax-savings options and access to wellness tools and programs; all in an integrated view with retirement benefits and payroll. The marketplace already operates in New York, Massachusetts and California. “Colorado’s capital, Denver, was recently named the nation’s top city for careers and businesses by Forbes1,” said Joe Laurin, president of Fidelity Health Marketplace. “The presence of our marketplace, which lowers benefits costs and improves access to benefits, fills the growing need for competitive benefits programs to support the growth of small to midsized companies in Colorado’s thriving business community.” Fidelity Health Marketplace combines traditional broker services and a web-based technology solution to bring more choice and lower costs for employers and their employees at a time when both groups are very concerned about the future of health insurance benefits. A recent Fidelity survey2 that included both employees and employers found that 76% of consumers are concerned that healthcare will increase in cost and complexity. The survey found that employers are also concerned about costs, but they also worry about attracting and retaining talent. In fact, 60% of them are concerned about how competitive their benefits are versus other employers. “Colorado has a strong business climate with a highly-educated workforce,” said Laurin. “We understand that providing a comprehensive benefits package is an important part of attracting and retaining talent in today’s competitive employment market. Our solution enables employers to keep costs down and ease the administrative burden of managing a benefits program.” Fidelity Health Marketplace has signed on key regional and national insurance carriers in Colorado including Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield © and Cigna©, among others. The marketplace offers a full suite of services beginning with traditional broker support to assist clients in determining the right plans to offer their employee base and a decision support tool to help employees select benefits. It is also integrated with Fidelity NetBenefits®, offering employees a single access point to view and manage all of their health and financial benefits, including the Fidelity HSA® and Fidelity Payroll Solutions. The platform offers an integrated enrollment experience, pre-configured connections to a network of insurance carriers, and a range of health and other ancillary benefits. For more information on Fidelity Health Marketplace, please click here or follow us on Twitter @Fidelity_Health. Fidelity Investments employs about 800 associates in Colorado, staffing its Personal Investing Regional Center in Greenwood Village, Asset Management division in Denver, Workplace Investing operations and five Investor Centers along the Front Range. Fidelity Health Marketplace offers one-stop-shop experience that seamlessly integrates health benefits, retirement savings plans, payroll and tax savings accounts like HSA and FSAs, to small and midsized businesses. Our no cost platform streamlines annual enrollment and benefits administration to save time and money. We offer employers the ability to choose from an extensive network of national and regional medical, dental, vision, life and disability benefits, tax-savings options and access to wellness tools and programs and a decision tool to help employees select benefits, all backed by Fidelity’s customer service and year round support. Fidelity Health Marketplace is a Fidelity Investments company. For more information, please visit www.fidelityhealthmarketplace.com. Fidelity’s mission is to inspire better futures and deliver better outcomes for the customers and businesses we serve. With assets under administration of $5.5 trillion, including managed assets of $2.1 trillion as of October 30, 2016, we focus on meeting the unique needs of a diverse set of customers: helping more than 25 million people invest their own life savings, nearly 20,000 businesses manage employee benefit programs, as well as providing nearly 10,000 advisory firms with investment and technology solutions to invest their own clients’ money. Privately held for 70 years, Fidelity employs 45,000 associates who are focused on the long-term success of our customers. For more information about Fidelity Investments, visit https://www.fidelity.com/about. 1 Source: “The Best Places for Businesses and Careers 2016”, Kurt Badenhausen, Forbes 19 Oct 2016 2 Source: Fidelity online survey of employees and benefit decision makers conducted May/June 2016 Fidelity, Fidelity Investments, the Fidelity Investments and Pyramid Design logo, NetBenefits and Fidelity HSA are registered service marks of FMR LLC. Fidelity Health Marketplace is a service mark of FMR LLC. The third party trademarks appearing herein are the property of their respective owners. Anthem Blue Cross, Cigna, and Fidelity Investments are not affiliated.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: news.yahoo.com

FILE - This Dec. 21, 2015 courtroom file sketch shows Enrique Marquez Jr. in federal court in Riverside, Calif. Marquez, a longtime friend of Syed Rizwan Farook, the male shooter in the San Bernardino terrorist attack, has agreed to plead guilty to conspiring with Farook in 2011 and 2012 to provide material support to terrorists. Marquez, 25, of Riverside, Calif., entered into a plea agreement that was filed Tuesday, Feb. 14, 2017, in U.S. District Court, and is scheduled to formally plead Thursday, Feb. 16. (Bill Robles via AP, File) LOS ANGELES (AP) — The only man to be criminally charged in the San Bernardino terror attack has agreed to plead guilty to providing the high-powered rifles used to kill 14 people and injure nearly two dozen others and to plotting a mass killing with the gunman that they never carried out, court records say. Enrique Marquez Jr., 25, of Riverside, admitted in a plea agreement released Tuesday that he bought the assault rifles used by Syed Rizwan Farook and his wife, Tashfeen Malik, in the Dec. 2, 2015, attack at a public health agency. Farook and Malik were later killed in a gunfight with authorities. Marquez also agreed to plead guilty to making false statements when he purchased the firearms used in the attack. Prosecutors said Marquez acknowledged being a "straw buyer" when he purchased two AR-15 rifles from a sporting goods store that were used in the attack at the Inland Regional Center in San Bernardino. Prosecutors have said Marquez agreed to buy the weapons because the attackers feared Farook's Middle Eastern appearance might arouse suspicion. Prosecutors said there is no evidence Marquez participated in the San Bernardino massacre or had advance knowledge of it. Marquez also admitted to plotting with Farook in 2011 and 2012 to massacre college students and gun down motorists on a gridlocked California freeway, though those attacks never occurred. Federal officials said the duo had envisioned halting traffic on state Route 91 with explosives and then firing at trapped motorists, or tossing pipe bombs into a crowded cafeteria at Riverside City College. Marquez said he backed out of the plot after four men in the area about 60 miles inland from Los Angeles were arrested on terrorism charges in late 2012, the FBI has said in court documents. "While his earlier plans to attack a school and a freeway were not executed, the planning clearly laid the foundation for the 2015 attack on the Inland Regional Center," U.S. Attorney Eileen M. Decker said Tuesday. Marquez, who could face up to 25 years in prison, is scheduled to appear before a federal judge on Thursday. His attorney didn't immediately respond to messages seeking comment. Mandy Pifer, whose boyfriend Shannon Johnson was killed in the terror attack, said the plea agreement brought mixed emotions. "It's a hell of a day to come out, Valentine's Day," the 42-year-old Los Angeles resident said. "I'm relieved that it won't be a long trial. If it'll be finished sooner, I'm all for it." She said she planned to speak at Marquez's sentencing about the impact her boyfriend's killing has had on her. In his last moments, Johnson huddled with a colleague under a table, shielding her from the bullets. "It is what it is," she said. "Nothing's going to bring him back." Marquez and Farook first met in 2005 after Marquez moved next door to Farook's family in Riverside, about 55 miles east of downtown Los Angeles, officials said. The then-teens would meet in Farook's garage and Farook, a Muslim, began educating his new friend about his religion. Marquez converted and became a Muslim in 2007. The FBI said the two began discussing extremist views shortly after Marquez converted. By late 2011, Marquez spent most of his time at Farook's home, where he read Inspire magazine, an official publication of al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula; watched videos produced by al-Qaida's affiliate in Somalia; and studied radical material online, federal officials said. Associated Press writer Amanda Lee Myers contributed to this report.


News Article | February 17, 2017
Site: news.yahoo.com

FILE - This Dec. 21, 2015 courtroom file sketch shows Enrique Marquez Jr. in federal court in Riverside, Calif. Marquez, a longtime friend of Syed Rizwan Farook, the male shooter in the San Bernardino terrorist attack, has agreed to plead guilty to conspiring with Farook in 2011 and 2012 to provide material support to terrorists. Marquez, 25, of Riverside, Calif., entered into a plea agreement that was filed Tuesday, Feb. 14, 2017, in U.S. District Court, and is scheduled to formally plead Thursday, Feb. 16. (Bill Robles via AP, File) LOS ANGELES (AP) — The only man to be criminally charged in the San Bernardino terror attack has agreed to plead guilty to providing the high-powered rifles used to kill 14 people and injure nearly two dozen others and to plotting a mass killing with the gunman that they never carried out, court records say. Enrique Marquez Jr., 25, of Riverside, admitted in a plea agreement released Tuesday that he bought the assault rifles used by Syed Rizwan Farook and his wife, Tashfeen Malik, in the Dec. 2, 2015, attack at a public health agency. Farook and Malik were later killed in a gunfight with authorities. Marquez also agreed to plead guilty to making false statements when he purchased the firearms used in the attack. Prosecutors said Marquez acknowledged being a "straw buyer" when he purchased two AR-15 rifles from a sporting goods store that were used in the attack at the Inland Regional Center in San Bernardino. Prosecutors have said Marquez agreed to buy the weapons because the attackers feared Farook's Middle Eastern appearance might arouse suspicion. Prosecutors said there is no evidence Marquez participated in the San Bernardino massacre or had advance knowledge of it. Marquez also admitted to plotting with Farook in 2011 and 2012 to massacre college students and gun down motorists on a gridlocked California freeway, though those attacks never occurred. Federal officials said the duo had envisioned halting traffic on state Route 91 with explosives and then firing at trapped motorists, or tossing pipe bombs into a crowded cafeteria at Riverside City College. Marquez said he backed out of the plot after four men in the area about 60 miles inland from Los Angeles were arrested on terrorism charges in late 2012, the FBI has said in court documents. "While his earlier plans to attack a school and a freeway were not executed, the planning clearly laid the foundation for the 2015 attack on the Inland Regional Center," U.S. Attorney Eileen M. Decker said Tuesday. Marquez, who could face up to 25 years in prison, is scheduled to appear before a federal judge on Thursday. His attorney didn't immediately respond to messages seeking comment. Mandy Pifer, whose boyfriend Shannon Johnson was killed in the terror attack, said the plea agreement brought mixed emotions. "It's a hell of a day to come out, Valentine's Day," the 42-year-old Los Angeles resident said. "I'm relieved that it won't be a long trial. If it'll be finished sooner, I'm all for it." She said she planned to speak at Marquez's sentencing about the impact her boyfriend's killing has had on her. In his last moments, Johnson huddled with a colleague under a table, shielding her from the bullets. "It is what it is," she said. "Nothing's going to bring him back." Marquez and Farook first met in 2005 after Marquez moved next door to Farook's family in Riverside, about 55 miles east of downtown Los Angeles, officials said. The then-teens would meet in Farook's garage and Farook, a Muslim, began educating his new friend about his religion. Marquez converted and became a Muslim in 2007. The FBI said the two began discussing extremist views shortly after Marquez converted. By late 2011, Marquez spent most of his time at Farook's home, where he read Inspire magazine, an official publication of al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula; watched videos produced by al-Qaida's affiliate in Somalia; and studied radical material online, federal officials said. Associated Press writer Amanda Lee Myers contributed to this report.


News Article | February 17, 2017
Site: news.yahoo.com

The home of Enrique Marquez stands on Tomlinson Avenue in Riverside, California on December 18, 2015. Marquez is accused of supplying assault rifles to the couple who massacred 14 people in San Bernardino, California. REUTERS/Patrick T. Fallon LOS ANGELES (Reuters) - A California man accused of buying assault-style rifles used by a married couple to massacre 14 people at a government office in San Bernardino in 2015 has agreed to plead guilty to conspiring to provide material support to terrorists, prosecutors said on Tuesday. Enrique Marquez Jr., 25, will plead guilty to conspiring with Syed Rizwan Farook in 2011 and 2012 to attack a community college and commuters on a Southern California freeway, prosecutors said. Marquez, a friend and former neighbor of Farook, has also agreed to plead guilty to making false statements about his purchase of two assault rifles used in the 2015 shooting rampage at the San Bernardino Inland Regional Center. Marquez was scheduled to enter his pleas, part of an agreement with federal prosecutors, at a hearing on Thursday in U.S. District Court in Los Angeles. He faces a maximum sentence of 25 years in prison. "This defendant collaborated with and purchased weapons for a man who carried out the devastating December 2, 2015 terrorist attack that took the lives of 14 innocent people, wounded nearly two dozen, and impacted our entire nation,” U.S. Attorney Eileen Decker said in a written statement announcing the plea deal. Farook, 28, and his wife, Tashfeen Malik, 29, opened fire at a holiday gathering of Farook's co-workers on Dec. 2, 2015, killing 14 people and wounding 22. Farook, the U.S.-born son of Pakistani immigrants, and Malik, a Pakistani native he married in Saudi Arabia in 2014, died in a shootout with police four hours after the massacre. Authorities have said the couple were inspired by Islamist extremism. It was one of the deadliest attacks by militants in the United States since the Sept. 11, 2001, hijacked plane attacks. Prosecutors say Marquez and Farook, who were childhood friends, plotted attacks together in 2011 and 2012 that were never carried out and it was during that time that Marquez purchased the two rifles that Farook and Malik ultimately used in San Bernardino. Marquez did not take part in the San Bernardino massacre but was arrested about two weeks later and has remained in custody ever since. He also faces immigration fraud charges in connection with his marriage to Russian-born Mariyah Chernykh, which prosecutors say was a sham. Chernykh, 26, and Farook's brother, Syed Raheel Farook, 31, pleaded guilty in January to immigration fraud charges stemming from the marriage.

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