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Cashin K.,Burnet Institute | Cashin K.,University of Melbourne | Gray L.R.,Burnet Institute | Gray L.R.,Monash University | And 17 more authors.
Scientific Reports | Year: 2015

Over the past decade antiretroviral drugs have dramatically improved the prognosis for HIV-1 infected individuals, yet achieving better access to vulnerable populations remains a challenge. The principal obstacle to the CCR5-antagonist, maraviroc, from being more widely used in anti-HIV-1 therapy regimens is that the pre-treatment genotypic œ tropism tests to determine virus susceptibility to maraviroc have been developed primarily for HIV-1 subtype B strains, which account for only 10% of infections worldwide. We therefore developed PhenoSeq, a suite of HIV-1 genotypic tropism assays that are highly sensitive and specific for establishing the tropism of HIV-1 subtypes A, B, C, D and circulating recombinant forms of subtypes AE and AG, which together account for 95% of HIV-1 infections worldwide. The PhenoSeq platform will inform the appropriate use of maraviroc and future CCR5 blocking drugs in regions of the world where non-B HIV-1 predominates, which are burdened the most by the HIV-1 pandemic.

Mulinge M.,Center Recherche Public Of La Sante | Lemaire M.,Center Recherche Public Of La Sante | Servais J.-Y.,Center Recherche Public Of La Sante | Rybicki A.,Center Recherche Public Of La Sante | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:Human Immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV) entry into target cells involves binding of the viral envelope (Env) to CD4 and a coreceptor, mainly CCR5 or CXCR4. The only currently licensed HIV entry inhibitor, maraviroc, targets CCR5, and the presence of CXCX4-using strains must be excluded prior to treatment. Co-receptor usage can be assessed by phenotypic assays or through genotypic prediction. Here we compared the performance of a phenotypic Env-Recombinant Viral Assay (RVA) to the two most widely used genotypic prediction algorithms, Geno2Pheno[coreceptor] and webPSSM.Methods:Co-receptor tropism of samples from 73 subtype B and 219 non-B infections was measured phenotypically using a luciferase-tagged, NL4-3-based, RVA targeting Env. In parallel, tropism was inferred genotypically from the corresponding V3-loop sequences using Geno2Pheno[coreceptor] (5-20% FPR) and webPSSM-R5X4. For discordant samples, phenotypic outcome was retested using co-receptor antagonists or the validated Trofile® Enhanced-Sensitivity-Tropism-Assay.Results:The lower detection limit of the RVA was 2.5% and 5% for X4 and R5 minority variants respectively. A phenotype/genotype result was obtained for 210 samples. Overall, concordance of phenotypic results with Geno2Pheno[coreceptor] was 85.2% and concordance with webPSSM was 79.5%. For subtype B, concordance with Geno2pheno[coreceptor] was 94.4% and concordance with webPSSM was 79.6%. High concordance of genotypic tools with phenotypic outcome was seen for subtype C (90% for both tools). Main discordances involved CRF01_AE and CRF02_AG for both algorithms (CRF01_AE: 35.9% discordances with Geno2Pheno[coreceptor] and 28.2% with webPSSM; CRF02_AG: 20.7% for both algorithms). Genotypic prediction overestimated CXCR4-usage for both CRFs. For webPSSM, 40% discordance was observed for subtype A.Conclusions:Phenotypic assays remain the most accurate for most non-B subtypes and new subtype-specific rules should be developed for non-B subtypes, as research studies more and more draw conclusions from genotypically-inferred tropism, and to avoid unnecessarily precluding patients with limited treatment options from receiving maraviroc or other entry inhibitors. © 2013 Mulinge et al.

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