Center Rd Of Lleida Udl Irta

Lleida, Spain

Center Rd Of Lleida Udl Irta

Lleida, Spain

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Perez-Hedo M.,Center Rd Of Lleida Udl Irta | Goodman W.G.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Schafellner C.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Martini A.,University of Bologna | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Insect Physiology | Year: 2011

Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae reared under long day (LD; 16L:8D) conditions pupate after 5 or 6 larval instars, whereas under short day (SD; 12L:12D) conditions they undergo up to 12 additional molts before pupating. This extended period of repeated molting is maintained by high levels of juvenile hormone (JH). Previous work demonstrated that both LD and SD larvae decapitated in the 6th instar pupate but further development is halted. By contrast, about one-third of SD larvae from which only the brain has been removed, undergo first a larval molt, then pupate and subsequently developed to the adult stage. Debrained LD larvae molt to larvae exceptionally but regularly pupate and produce adults. Implanted brains may induce several larval molts in debrained recipient larvae irrespectively of the photoperiodic conditions. The results of present work demonstrate that the prothoracic glands (PGs) and the corpora allata (CA) of debrained larvae continue to produce ecdysteroids and JHs, respectively. PGs are active also in the decapitated larvae that lack JH, consistent with the paradigm that CA, which are absent in the decapitated larvae, are the only source of this hormone. Completion of the pupal-adult transformation in both LD and SD debrained insects demonstrates that brain is not crucial for the development of S. nonagrioides but is required for diapause maintenance. Application of JH to headless pupae induces molting, presumably by activating their PGs. It is likely that JH plays this role also in the induction of pupal-adult transformation in debrained insects. Application of the ecdysteroid agonist RH 2485 (methoxyfenozide) to headless pupae also elicits molting: newly secreted cuticle is in some cases thin and indifferent, in other cases it bears distinct pupal or adult features. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Perez-Hedo M.,Center Rd Of Lleida Udl Irta | Eizaguirre M.,Center Rd Of Lleida Udl Irta | Sehnal F.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Journal of Insect Physiology | Year: 2010

The caterpillars of Sesamia nonagrioides developing under long-day (LD) photoperiod pupate in the 5th or 6th instar whereas under short day (SD) conditions they enter diapause and undergo several extra larval molts. The diapause is terminated within 1-3 instars upon transfer of SD larvae to the LD conditions. Brain removal from the 6th instar larvae promotes pupation followed by imaginal development; however, one third of the SD larvae and 12% of the LD larvae debrained at the start of the instar first undergo 1-2 larval molts. The incidence of larval molts is enhanced by the brain implants. Exclusively pupal molts occur in the LD larvae debrained late in the 6th instar. Decapitation elicits pupation in both LD and SD larvae, except for some of the 4th and 5th and rarely 6th instar that are induced to a fast larval molt. The pupation of decapitated larvae is reverted to a larval molt by application of a juvenile hormone (JH) agonist. No molts occur in abdomens isolated from the head and thorax prior to the wandering stage. Abdomens isolated later undergo a larval (SD insects) or a pupal (LD insects) molt. Taken together the data reveal that in S. nonagrioides (1) several larval molts followed by a pupal and imaginal molt can occur without brain; (2) an unknown head factor outside the brain is needed for the pupal-adult molt; (3) brain exerts both stimulatory and inhibitory effect on the corpora allata (CA); (4) larval molts induced in CA absence suggest considerable JH persistence. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.


Perez-Hedo M.,Center Rd Of Lleida Udl Irta | Pena R.N.,Center Rd Of Lleida Udl Irta | Sehnal F.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Eizaguirre M.,Center Rd Of Lleida Udl Irta
General and Comparative Endocrinology | Year: 2010

The molts of lepidopteran insects are typically controlled by the brain-derived prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) that stimulates ecdysteroidogenesis in the prothoracic glands (PGs). We report here that the larvae and pupae of the moth Sesamia nonagrioides can molt without brain (PGs must be present), suggesting that there might be a secondary source of PTTH. We addressed this issue by characterizing spatial and temporal expression patterns of the PTTH gene. To this end we identified a major part of the corresponding cDNA. Protein deduced from this cDNA fragment consisted of 128 amino acids and showed 48-85% homology with the matching regions of PTTHs known from other Lepidoptera. Quantification of PTTH expression in major body organs of the last instar larvae revealed high expression in the brain (fading in post-feeding larvae) and considerable expression in the gut (with a maximum in post-feeding larvae). The content of PTTH message in the gut was enhanced after decapitation. It is concluded that the molts of S. nonagrioides larvae are driven by PTTH gene expression in the gut. © 2010.


PubMed | Center Rd Of Lleida Udl Irta
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of insect physiology | Year: 2011

Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae reared under long day (LD; 16L:8D) conditions pupate after 5 or 6 larval instars, whereas under short day (SD; 12L:12D) conditions they undergo up to 12 additional molts before pupating. This extended period of repeated molting is maintained by high levels of juvenile hormone (JH). Previous work demonstrated that both LD and SD larvae decapitated in the 6th instar pupate but further development is halted. By contrast, about one-third of SD larvae from which only the brain has been removed, undergo first a larval molt, then pupate and subsequently developed to the adult stage. Debrained LD larvae molt to larvae exceptionally but regularly pupate and produce adults. Implanted brains may induce several larval molts in debrained recipient larvae irrespectively of the photoperiodic conditions. The results of present work demonstrate that the prothoracic glands (PGs) and the corpora allata (CA) of debrained larvae continue to produce ecdysteroids and JHs, respectively. PGs are active also in the decapitated larvae that lack JH, consistent with the paradigm that CA, which are absent in the decapitated larvae, are the only source of this hormone. Completion of the pupal-adult transformation in both LD and SD debrained insects demonstrates that brain is not crucial for the development of S. nonagrioides but is required for diapause maintenance. Application of JH to headless pupae induces molting, presumably by activating their PGs. It is likely that JH plays this role also in the induction of pupal-adult transformation in debrained insects. Application of the ecdysteroid agonist RH 2485 (methoxyfenozide) to headless pupae also elicits molting: newly secreted cuticle is in some cases thin and indifferent, in other cases it bears distinct pupal or adult features.


PubMed | Center Rd Of Lleida Udl Irta
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of insect physiology | Year: 2010

The caterpillars of Sesamia nonagrioides developing under long-day (LD) photoperiod pupate in the 5th or 6th instar whereas under short day (SD) conditions they enter diapause and undergo several extra larval molts. The diapause is terminated within 1-3 instars upon transfer of SD larvae to the LD conditions. Brain removal from the 6th instar larvae promotes pupation followed by imaginal development; however, one third of the SD larvae and 12% of the LD larvae debrained at the start of the instar first undergo 1-2 larval molts. The incidence of larval molts is enhanced by the brain implants. Exclusively pupal molts occur in the LD larvae debrained late in the 6th instar. Decapitation elicits pupation in both LD and SD larvae, except for some of the 4th and 5th and rarely 6th instar that are induced to a fast larval molt. The pupation of decapitated larvae is reverted to a larval molt by application of a juvenile hormone (JH) agonist. No molts occur in abdomens isolated from the head and thorax prior to the wandering stage. Abdomens isolated later undergo a larval (SD insects) or a pupal (LD insects) molt. Taken together the data reveal that in S. nonagrioides (1) several larval molts followed by a pupal and imaginal molt can occur without brain; (2) an unknown head factor outside the brain is needed for the pupal-adult molt; (3) brain exerts both stimulatory and inhibitory effect on the corpora allata (CA); (4) larval molts induced in CA absence suggest considerable JH persistence.


PubMed | Center Rd Of Lleida Udl Irta
Type: Journal Article | Journal: General and comparative endocrinology | Year: 2010

The molts of lepidopteran insects are typically controlled by the brain-derived prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) that stimulates ecdysteroidogenesis in the prothoracic glands (PGs). We report here that the larvae and pupae of the moth Sesamia nonagrioides can molt without brain (PGs must be present), suggesting that there might be a secondary source of PTTH. We addressed this issue by characterizing spatial and temporal expression patterns of the PTTH gene. To this end we identified a major part of the corresponding cDNA. Protein deduced from this cDNA fragment consisted of 128 amino acids and showed 48-85% homology with the matching regions of PTTHs known from other Lepidoptera. Quantification of PTTH expression in major body organs of the last instar larvae revealed high expression in the brain (fading in post-feeding larvae) and considerable expression in the gut (with a maximum in post-feeding larvae). The content of PTTH message in the gut was enhanced after decapitation. It is concluded that the molts of S. nonagrioides larvae are driven by PTTH gene expression in the gut.

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