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Lordan J.,IRTA Estacio Experimental de Lleida | Alegre S.,IRTA Estacio Experimental de Lleida | Moerkens R.,Proefcentrum Hoogstraten | Moerkens R.,University of Antwerp | And 2 more authors.
Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2015

The European earwig Forficula auricularia L. (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) has been widely studied as a key predator of pests in temperate regions, but its phenology and behavior may differ in warmer areas such as the Mediterranean. Here we assessed the phenology, aggregation, and interspecific association of F. auricularia and Forficula pubescens Gené, the only two species found consistently in both ground and canopy shelters in Mediterranean apple orchards. In addition to F. auricularia and F. pubescens, three other earwig species, namely Labidura riparia Pallas, Nala lividipes Dufour and Euborellia moesta Gené, were found occasionally. The mature stages of F. auricularia were observed mainly from May to November in tree shelters and immature ones from October to June in ground shelters. Adult individuals of F. pubescens were observed year-round and nymph instars were detected from April to June in ground as well as in tree shelters. The suitability of the current degree-days models for temperate regions was evaluated for the prediction of European earwig phenology in a Mediterranean climate. Regarding interspecific association, F. auricularia and F. pubescens co-occurred in canopies without apparent competition. This study provides useful weekly data about the phenology of the two earwig species throughout the year that can be used to detect the key periods during which to enhance their populations in pip fruit orchards or to control them in stone fruit crops. Furthermore, our results are of relevance for the development of new phenological models of earwigs in Mediterranean areas where nymphs hibernate, a feature that makes current models inaccurate. © 2015 INIA.

Lordan J.,IRTA Estacio Experimental de Lleida | Alegre S.,IRTA Estacio Experimental de Lleida | Blanco R.,University of Lleida | Sarasua M.-J.,Center Udl Irta Of Rd Of Lleida | Alins G.,IRTA Estacio Experimental de Lleida
Crop Protection | Year: 2014

The European earwig Forficula auricularia Linnaeus (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) is a key predator of pests in pip fruit orchards; however, this insect can also cause economic damage in stone fruit crops. Pheromone-impregnated shelters may be useful to promote earwigs in orchards devoted to pip fruit and also to capture them in those used for stone fruit production. By using corrugated cardboard traps in four orchards during two years, we observed the aggregation behavior of European earwig in canopies. Under laboratory conditions, corrugated cardboard shelters impregnated by 0.2 individuals/cm2 over one week attracted earwigs for 5 weeks within a range of 50cm. Future field work should examine the potential of impregnated shelters to promote earwigs in pip fruit orchards and to remove them from stone fruit ones. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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