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Yaoundé, Cameroon

Gimou M.-M.,Center Pasteur of Cameroon | Charrondiere U.R.,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO | Leblanc J.-C.,Anses | Pouillot R.,7403 Wyndale Lane | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis | Year: 2014

Twenty five minerals and trace elements were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in 64 pooled foods prepared "as consumed", representing 96.5% of the total diet in Yaoundé, Cameroon. High element contents (in mgkg-1) of some food samples are highlighted. "Dried spices for local sauce" (raw/toasted) highly contained calcium (7720), iron (143), magnesium (1970), potassium (20,100), copper (12.6), manganese (109), aluminium (120), and lead (14.3). "Dried and smoked fish and shrimps" (boiled) contained high levels of calcium (21,200), potassium (7300), zinc (43.6), aluminium (27.8), and arsenic (1.14). "Garden huckleberry and amaranth" (boiled/washed fresh leaves) contained high levels of calcium (3580), manganese (15.9) and barium (19.4). "Squash beans and sesame" (boiled) provided magnesium (1240), and zinc (29.5). "Shelled groundnut" (soaked/grilled/boiled) contained high levels of magnesium (1040), zinc (31.5), and copper (8.32). Selenium was found only in fish as mackerel (0.467) and sea bass (0.450). No food product exceeded the maximum levels set for lead, mercury and cadmium by the current European regulation. These results will be used for dietary exposure and health risk assessment. © 2014.


Gimou M.-M.,Center Pasteur of Cameroon | Charrondiere U.R.,Food and Agriculture Organization FAO of the United Nations Nutrition Division | Leblanc J.-C.,Anses | Noel L.,Environmental Inorganic Contaminants and Mineral Unit | And 2 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2013

Dietary exposure to 11 elements was assessed by the Total Diet Study (TDS) method. Sixty-four pooled samples representing 96.5% of the diet in Yaoundé, Cameroon, were prepared as consumed before analysis. Consumption data were sourced from a household budget survey. Dietary exposures were compared with nutritional or health-based guidance values (HBGV) and to worldwide TDS results. Elevated prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated for calcium (71.6%), iron (89.7%), magnesium (31.8%), zinc (46.9%) and selenium (87.3%). The percentage of the study population exceeding the tolerable upper intake levels was estimated as <3.2% for calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc and cobalt; 19.1% of the population exceeded the HBGV for sodium. No exceedance of the HBGV for inorganic mercury was predicted in the population. The margin of exposure ranged from 0.91 to 25.0 for inorganic arsenic depending on the reference point. The "Fish" food group was the highest contributor to intake for calcium (65%), cobalt (32%) and selenium (96%). This group was the highest contributor to the exposure to total arsenic (71%) and organic mercury (96%). The "Cereals and cereal products" highly contributed to iron (26%), zinc (26%) and chromium (25%) intakes. The "Tubers and starches" highly contributed to magnesium (39%) and potassium (52%) intakes. This study highlights the dietary deficiency of some essential elements and a low dietary exposure to toxic elements in Yaoundé. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.


Bigna J.J.R.,Center Pasteur of Cameroon | Bigna J.J.R.,University of Bordeaux 1
African Health Sciences | Year: 2016

The World Health Organization aims to eradicate wild poliovirus worldwide by the end of 2018. Cameroon and Nigeria, neighboring countries, have been affected by the terrorist and militant activities of the Islamist sect Boko Haram. Impacted regions are mainly the far North of Cameroon and Northern Nigeria. Targets of Boko Haram aggression in these zones include violence against polio workers, disruption of polio immunization campaigns, with consequent reduced access to health care and immunization. In addition to this significant problem, Northern Nigeria has historically seen rejection of polio virus vaccine initiatives. It remains to know how health systems can continue operations against polio in areas where Boko Haram operates. If appropriate measures are not urgently taken, it will be not possible to meet the 2018 goal of polio virus eradication. The response should include specialized immunization activities in conflict zones, will engagement of leaders. Countries should also explore immunization activities by soldiers and military personnel. © 2016, Makerere University, Medical School. All rights reserved.


Gimou M.-M.,Center Pasteur of Cameroon | Charrondiere U.R.,Food and Agriculture Organization Nutrition Division | Noel L.,University Paris Est Creteil | Guerin T.,University Paris Est Creteil | Leblanc J.-C.,Anses
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2014

Dietary exposure to trace elements (aluminium, antimony, barium, cadmium, lead, nickel, vanadium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, germanium, lithium, strontium and tellurium) was assessed by the total diet study (TDS) method. Sixty-four pooled samples representing 96.5% of the diet in Yaoundé, Cameroon, were prepared "as consumed" before analysis. Consumption data were sourced from a households' budget survey. Dietary exposures were compared with health-based guidance or nutritional values and to worldwide TDS results. The health-based guidance value was exceeded by ≤ 0.2% of the study population for aluminium, antimony, barium, cadmium, nickel and vanadium. For lead, the observed 95th percentile of exposure (3.05 μg kg-1 body weight day-1) equals the critical value considered by JECFA for cardiovascular effects; therefore, risk to health cannot be excluded for certain consumer groups. The population at risk of excess intake for manganese, copper, molybdenum and nickel was considered to be low (≤ 0.3%). The prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated at 5.9% for copper and was nil for molybdenum. Due to the lack of toxicological and/or nutritional consistent data to perform a risk assessment, dietary exposures to germanium, lithium, strontium and tellurium were provided as supplementary data. The food groups highest contributors to exposure were "tubers and starches" for aluminium (27%), lead (39%) and copper (26%), "cereals and cereal products" for cadmium (54%) and manganese (35%), "fruits, vegetables and oilseeds" for barium (34%), molybdenum (49%) and nickel (31%), "beverages" for antimony (27%) and "fish" for vanadium (43% - lower bound). Measures should be recommended to maintain low levels of exposure before the problem could become an important health or trade issue. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Demanou M.,Center Pasteur of Cameroon | Ratsitoharana R.,Center Pasteur of Cameroon | Yonga M.,Center Pasteur of Cameroon | Dosseh A.,WHO IST West Africa | And 3 more authors.
Virology Journal | Year: 2013

Background: Measles virus (MeV) is monotypic, but genetic variation in the hemagglutinin H and nucleoprotein N genes can be analyzed by molecular epidemiologic techniques and used to study virus transmission patterns. The World Health Organization currently recognizes 8 clades (A-H) within which are 24 genotypes of MeV and one provisional genotype, d11. Genotype B3 is clearly the endemic genotype in most of African continent where it is widely distributed. We provide an update on the molecular characterization of wild-type MeVs that circulated in Cameroon between 2010 and 2011. Findings. Viral RNA was extracted directly from samples obtained from clinically diagnosed measles patients using QIAamp viral RNA Mini Kit. Reverse transcription and PCR amplification of 634 nucleotides of the N gene was performed using the SuperScript™ III One-Step. Sequence analysis of 450 of the 634 nucleotides using Clustal X 2.0 program for multiple alignments and Mega version 5 for phylogenic analysis indicated that all the viruses belonged to genotype B3 with two distinct clusters. Twenty three (77%) belonged to subgroup B3.1 and the other 7 (23%) belonged to B3.3 a recently described subtype. Circulation of cluster 3 was detected in the Far-North Region (5/7) particularly along the Chad-Cameroon border in 2010 and later in Yaounde (2/7 in Biyem-assi Health District) the capital city of Cameroon in 2011. Conclusion: This study highlights the endemic circulation in Cameroon of MeV B3 subtype 1, which probably has its source in the neighboring Nigeria, and the presence of the new subtype B3.3, suggesting a possible importation from Northern Africa where it was first described between 2008 and 2009. © 2013 Demanou et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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