Engle-Stone R.,University of California at Davis |
Haskell M.J.,University of California at Davis |
Ndjebayi A.O.,Helen Keller International |
Nankap M.,Helen Keller International |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011
Variation in the relationship between plasma retinol-binding protein (RBP) and retinol (ROH) has implications for vitamin A (VA) status assessment using RBP. Our objectives were to identify factors affecting the RBP:ROH relationship and to derive and evaluate population-specific RBP cutoffs for VA deficiency (VAD) in Cameroon. Plasma RBP, C-reactive protein (CRP), α1-acid-glycoprotein (AGP), and ROH concentrations were compared in a subsample of women 15-49 y (n = 121) and children 12-59 mo (n = 123) included in a national survey conducted in 2009. Plasma RBP and ROH were highly correlated (r = 0.94 for women; r = 0.96 for children; P<0.001). Pregnancy and lactation altered the RBP:ROH relationship in women, but obesity, elevated CRP and AGP, age, and VA status did not. Among children, age altered the RBP:ROH relationship, but sex, stunting, VA status, and elevated CRP and AGP did not. Cutoffs for VAD derived using regression analysis were <1.17 μmol RBP/L for women (corresponding to <1.05 μmol ROH/L) and <0.83 μmol RBP/L for children (corresponding to <0.70 μmol ROH/L). The sensitivity and specificity of derived cutoffs were 81.8 and 93.0% for women and 94.7 and 88.9% for children, respectively. The infection-adjusted prevalence of low VA status (<1.17 μmol RBP/L) was 21.9% (95% CI = 18.7-25.0%) among women. Among children, the infection-adjusted prevalence of VAD (<0.83 μmol RBP/L) was 35.0% (95% CI = 31.1-39.0%). In conclusion, VAD remains a public health problem in Cameroon. The RBP:ROH relationship should be considered in surveys using RBP to assess VA status, and use of population-specific cutoffs may be advisable. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition.
Ndowa F.J.,World Health Organization |
Ndowa F.J.,Ministry of Health and Child Welfare |
Francis J.M.,National Institute for Medical Research |
Machiha A.,Ministry of Health and Child Welfare |
And 2 more authors.
Sexually Transmitted Infections | Year: 2013
Many countries in Africa have weak surveillance systems for data collection of sexually transmitted infections, and hardly any programmes for gonococcal antimicrobial susceptibility assessment. The widespread adoption of the syndromic approach to the diagnosis and management of sexually transmitted infections has also meant that the collection of a genital specimen for laboratory analysis is no longer routinely done when patients present with genital complaints, and clinical staff and laboratory technicians have lost the skill to collect genital specimens and processing them for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Following reports of gonococcal antimicrobial resistance to quinolones, WHO urged countries to monitor gonococcal antimicrobial resistance in a more systematic and regular manner. Although the response in Africa has been slow to take off, a number of studies have been conducted in a few countries and plans for implementation are in place in others. However, the number of isolates studied has been small in nearly all the countries except one, and the barriers to scaling up gonococcal antimicrobial resistance surveys seem overwhelming. In spite of the studies being few and of small sample sizes, enough information can be discerned to indicate that quinolones can no longer be a medicine of choice for the treatment of gonorrhoea in Africa and the threat of antimicrobial resistance developing in Neisseria gonorrhoeae to thirdgeneration cephalosporins is real and imminent.
Razanajatovo N.H.,Institute Pasteur Of Madagascar Ipm |
Richard V.,Epidemiology Unit |
Hoffmann J.,Institute Pasteur Of Madagascar Ipm |
Reynes J.-M.,Institute Pasteur Of Madagascar Ipm |
And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011
Background: In Madagascar, despite an influenza surveillance established since 1978, little is known about the etiology and prevalence of viruses other than influenza causing influenza-like illnesses (ILIs). Methodology/Principal Findings: From July 2008 to June 2009, we collected respiratory specimens from patients who presented ILIs symptoms in public and private clinics in Antananarivo (the capital city of Madagascar). ILIs were defined as body temperature ≥38°C and cough and at least two of the following symptoms: sore throat, rhinorrhea, headache and muscular pain, for a maximum duration of 3 days. We screened these specimens using five multiplex real time Reverse Transcription and/or Polymerase Chain Reaction assays for detection of 14 respiratory viruses. We detected respiratory viruses in 235/313 (75.1%) samples. Overall influenza virus A (27.3%) was the most common virus followed by rhinovirus (24.8%), RSV (21.2%), adenovirus (6.1%), coronavirus OC43 (6.1%), influenza virus B (3.9%), parainfluenza virus-3 (2.9%), and parainfluenza virus-1 (2.3%). Co-infections occurred in 29.4% (69/235) of infected patients and rhinovirus was the most detected virus (27.5%). Children under 5 years were more likely to have one or more detectable virus associated with their ILI. In this age group, compared to those ≥5 years, the risk of detecting more than one virus was higher (OR = 1.9), as was the risk of detecting of RSV (OR = 10.1) and adenovirus (OR = 4.7). While rhinovirus and adenovirus infections occurred year round, RSV, influenza virus A and coronavirus OC43 had defined period of circulation. Conclusions: In our study, we found that respiratory viruses play an important role in ILIs in the Malagasy community, particularly in children under 5 years old. These data provide a better understanding of the viral etiology of outpatients with ILI and describe for the first time importance of these viruses in different age group and their period of circulation. © 2011 Razanajatovo et al.
Dodet B.,AfroREB coordinator |
Tejiokem M.C.,Center Pasteur du Cameroun |
Aguemon A.-R.,University of Monastir |
Bourhy H.,Institute Pasteur Paris
International Health | Year: 2014
The current outbreak of Ebola virus disease has mobilized the international community against this deadly disease. However, rabies, another deadly disease, is greatly affecting the African continent, with an estimated 25 000 deaths every year. And yet, the disease can be prevented by a vaccine, if necessary with immunoglobulin, even when administered after exposure to the rabies virus. Rabies victims die because of neglect and ignorance, because they are not aware of these life-saving biologicals, or because they cannot access them or do not have the money to pay for them. Breaking the cycle of indifference of rabies deaths in humans in Africa should be a priority of governments, international organizations and all stakeholders involved. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved.
Vessiere A.,Center Pasteur du Cameroun |
Rousset D.,Center Pasteur du Cameroun |
Kfutwah A.,Center Pasteur du Cameroun |
Leoz M.,Center Pasteur du Cameroun |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2010
OBJECTIVE: To define a routine algorithm for the specific diagnosis and complete follow-up of HIV-1 group O (HIV-O) infections in Cameroun. METHODS: During 18 months, samples referred to Centre Pasteur du Cameroun for HIV testing or viral monitoring were screened for HIV-O infection with an in-house serotyping assay. HIV-O viral load was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction in the LTR gene and resistance genotyping was performed on pol and env sequences. RESULTS: Of the 7030 samples tested, 78 HIV-O infections (1.1%) were identified, including 7 M and O dually seroreactive samples (9%). All treatment-naive patients and 59% of the patients receiving HAART had detectable viral loads. Analysis of pol sequences from 15 treatment-naive patients revealed a high number of polymorphisms in the protease region, with natural residues implicated in genotypic resistance to tipranavir and saquinavir for HIV-1 group M according to the Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le Sida et les Hépatites virales algorithm. Six patients (40%) harbored the 181C mutation conferring natural resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Among antiretroviral-treated patients, major resistance mutations described for HIV-1 group M were found. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-O prevalence remains relatively low in Cameroun. The cocirculation of groups M and O in this country leads to replicative dual infections. HIV-O-infected patients in this region can now benefit from effective and specific tools for a complete monitoring of infection. However, further studies are needed to understand long-term response to antiretrovirals of these complex variants. Copyright © 2009 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Foupouapouognigni Y.,Center Pasteur du Cameroun |
Noah D.N.,Hopital Central de Yaounde |
Sartre M.T.,Cabinet Medical de la Cathedrale |
Njouom R.,Center Pasteur du Cameroun
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2011
Antibodies to the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) were found in 17.6% of 233 hepatitis B virus surface antigen-positive subjects in Cameroon. Phylogenetic analyses showed the presence of HDV-1, HDV-5, HDV-6, and HDV-7 genotypes. These results enrich the limited data on HDV prevalence and molecular diversity in Cameroon. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Pepin J.,Université de Sherbrooke |
Lavoie M.,Université de Sherbrooke |
Pybus O.G.,University of Oxford |
Pouillot R.,Center Pasteur du Cameroun |
And 4 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010
Background. In southern Cameroon, where SIVcpz, the source of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) group M, is prevalent among wild chimpanzees, ∼50% of some human birth cohorts have been infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) through unclear mechanisms. Methods. To evaluate indirectly the hypothesis that medical interventions contributed to the early emergence of HIV-1, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 451 inhabitants of Ebolowa in southern Cameroon aged ≥60 years, using HCV as a marker of parenteral transmission of blood-borne viruses. We administered a questionnaire and tested serum for antibodies against HCV. Viral gene sequences were obtained from HCV-positive sera. Molecular clock analyses provided an independent source of information on epidemic history. Results. A total of 252 participants (56%) were HCV seropositive. HCV sequences were amplified and genotyped from 171 individuals. Independent risk factors for HCV seropositivity were older age, having received intravenous treatment against malaria, and having attended an ethnic school (women only), whereas having been circumcised by a traditional practitioner (men only) tended to be associated with HCV. In addition, transfusions were associated with HCV genotype 1 transmission. Molecular clock analyses of HCV genotypes 1, 2, and 4 revealed that each independently underwent exponential growth during the first half of the 20th century. Conclusions. Medical interventions (intravenous antimalarial drugs, transfusions) and to a lesser extent traditional practices (circumcision) were associated with the massive transmission of HCV among this population decades ago. This finding supports the hypothesis that medical interventions contributed to the transmission of blood-borne viruses, perhaps including SIVcpz and HIV-1, in the same region during the early 20th century. © 2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.
Bowden R.,University of Oxford |
MacFie T.S.,University of Cambridge |
Myers S.,University of Oxford |
Myers S.,Broad Institute |
And 6 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2012
In spite of its evolutionary significance and conservation importance, the population structure of the common chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes, is still poorly understood. An issue of particular controversy is whether the proposed fourth subspecies of chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes ellioti, from parts of Nigeria and Cameroon, is genetically distinct. Although modern high-throughput SNP genotyping has had a major impact on our understanding of human population structure and demographic history, its application to ecological, demographic, or conservation questions in non-human species has been extremely limited. Here we apply these tools to chimpanzee population structure, using ~700 autosomal SNPs derived from chimpanzee genomic data and a further ~100 SNPs from targeted re-sequencing. We demonstrate conclusively the existence of P. t. ellioti as a genetically distinct subgroup. We show that there is clear differentiation between the verus, troglodytes, and ellioti populations at the SNP and haplotype level, on a scale that is greater than that separating continental human populations. Further, we show that only a small set of SNPs (10-20) is needed to successfully assign individuals to these populations. Tellingly, use of only mitochondrial DNA variation to classify individuals is erroneous in 4 of 54 cases, reinforcing the dangers of basing demographic inference on a single locus and implying that the demographic history of the species is more complicated than that suggested analyses based solely on mtDNA. In this study we demonstrate the feasibility of developing economical and robust tests of individual chimpanzee origin as well as in-depth studies of population structure. These findings have important implications for conservation strategies and our understanding of the evolution of chimpanzees. They also act as a proof-of-principle for the use of cheap high-throughput genomic methods for ecological questions. © 2012 Bowden et al.
Njouom R.,Center Pasteur du Cameroun
BMC research notes | Year: 2014
BACKGROUND: Dog rabies is endemic in most African countries and the risk of human rabies is estimated to be high in Cameroon according to WHO estimations in 2010. This study aimed to describe the circulation rabies virus (RABV) among dogs in the southern regions of Cameroon from 2010 to 2013 in a context, where mass vaccination campaigns are launched annually in order to control rabies in domestic animals including dogs and cats.FINDINGS: From 2010 to 2013, 93 animal specimens (dogs: 91, monkey: 1, pig: 1) originating from the southern regions of Cameroon were collected and tested for rabies virus at the Centre Pasteur of Cameroon by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and virus isolation. Of the total dog specimens, 69.2% (63/91) originated from the central part of the southern regions and 50.5% (46/91) were from the capital city Yaounde. Overall, 74.2% (66/89) of dogs' specimens that could be tested were found rabies-positive while specimens from the monkey and pig were tested negative. Overall, dog rabies was repeatedly detected in the southern regions of Cameroon especially in the nation capital, Yaounde even though low specimen submission and geographic bias did not permit major conclusions about its actual rate, geographical and over time distribution.CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that rabies is endemic in the dog population which is of public health concern. Therefore, coordinated rabies control program should be conducted to reduce the rabies incidence in dogs and in humans. In addition, proper rabies surveillance program including reporting system should be established to monitor the success of the control program in Cameroon.
Massenet D.,Center Pasteur du Cameroun |
Tapindjin-Gake M.,Center Pasteur du Cameroun
Vaccine | Year: 2010
The microbiological surveillance of acute bacterial meningitis in the three northern provinces of Cameroon, namely North, Far North and Adamaoua shows the disappearance of Hib from cerebrospinal fluid specimens examined in the laboratory of the Centre Pasteur, in Garoua, using culture and/or soluble antigen testing, since the Hib immunization introduction on 1 February 2009. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.