Center on the Early Life Origins of Disease

Baltimore, MD, United States

Center on the Early Life Origins of Disease

Baltimore, MD, United States
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Bustamante Helfrich B.,Center on the Early Life Origins of Disease | Bustamante Helfrich B.,University of the Incarnate Word | Chilukuri N.,Center on the Early Life Origins of Disease | He H.,Center on the Early Life Origins of Disease | And 7 more authors.
Placenta | Year: 2017

Introduction The associations of maternal conditions, before or during pregnancy, with placental lesions have not been adequately studied in populations. Methods In the Boston Birth Cohort, we evaluated associations between three maternal medical conditions (hypertensive disorders [HDs], gestational/pre-gestational diabetes and obesity), and placental histological findings, using a standardized classification system proposed by the Amsterdam Placental Workshop Group. Placental pathology diagnoses and clinical data from 3074 mothers with clinical indications who delivered singleton live births at the Boston Medical Center between October 1998 and November 2013 were evaluated. Associations between each maternal condition and maternal vascular malperfusion (MVM) of the placental bed and its standardized subgroups were examined using multivariate logistic and multinomial regressions. Results Women with HDs (chronic hypertension, eclampsia, preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome) had significantly increased odds of MVM lesions when compared to women with no HD (aOR 2.08 95% CI 1.74–2.50), after adjusting for demographics, substance use, diabetes and body mass index. No significant differences in frequencies or aORs were seen in women with and without diabetes, or across body mass index categories. Co-morbid condition patterns that included HDs were more likely to be associated with MVM than those without. Discussion Using a standardized classification system, we showed that MVM is strongly and specifically associated with maternal HDs, but not other maternal conditions. Additional studies are needed to confirm and validate our findings, and evaluate the role of maternal vascular lesions of the placental bed in relation to postnatal growth and development of the offspring and effect modifiers. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Mao G.,Wenzhou University | Mao G.,Center on the Early Life Origins of Disease | Zhang X.,Mary Ann And J Milburn Smith Child Health Research | Hong X.,Center on the Early Life Origins of Disease | And 8 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2016

Background: Prenatal exposure to ambient PM2.5, (i.e., fine particulate matter, aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) has been associated with preterm birth and low birth weight. The association between prenatal PM2.5 exposure and intrauterine inflammation (IUI), an important risk factor for preterm birth and neurodevelopmental outcomes, has not been evaluated. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the association between maternal exposure to PM2.5 and IUI in the Boston Birth Cohort, a predominantly urban low-income minority population. Methods: This analysis included 5,059 mother–infant pairs in the Boston Birth Cohort. IUI was assessed based on intrapartum fever and placenta pathology. PM2.5 exposure was assigned using data from the U.S. EPA’s Air Quality System. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) quantified the association of maternal PM2.5 exposure during preconception and various periods of pregnancy with IUI. Results: Comparing the highest with the lowest PM2.5 exposure quartiles, the multi-adjusted association with IUI was significant for all exposure periods considered, including 3 months before conception (OR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.89), first trimester (OR = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.55, 2.40), second trimester (OR = 1.67; 95% CI: 1.35, 2.08), third trimester (OR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.90), and whole pregnancy (OR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.55, 2.37). Conclusions: Despite relatively low exposures, our results suggest a monotonic positive relationship between PM2.5 exposure during preconception and pregnancy and IUI. IUI may be a sensitive biomarker for assessing early biological effect of PM2.5 exposure on the developing fetus. © 2016, Public Health Services, US Dept of Health and Human Services. All rights reserved.


Zong G.,Harvard University | Grandjean P.,University of Southern Denmark | Wang X.,Center on the Early Life Origins of Disease | Sun Q.,Harvard University
Environmental Research | Year: 2016

Objective Lactation may help curb diabetes risk and is also known as an excretion route for some environmental pollutants. We evaluated associations of lifetime lactation history with serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2006, and examined whether potentially diabetogenic POPs account for associations between lactation and diabetes. Research design and methods Among 4479 parous women, breastfeeding history was defined as the number of children breastfed ≥1 month. Diabetes was identified by self-report or hemoglobin A1c >6.5%. Twenty-four POPs were measured in serum among subsamples of 668 to 1073 participants. Results Compared with women without lactation history, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of having diabetes among those with 1–2 and ≥3 lactation periods were 0.83(0.61, 1.13) and 0.63(0.44, 0.91; P trend=0.03). Lifetime lactation history was inversely associated with serum concentrations of 17 out of the 24 organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), and perfluoroalkyl substances (Ptrend<0.05). Comparing the ≥3 lactations group with women without a lactation history, the relative reduction of POPs ranged from 12% (PCB-196) to 30% (oxychlordane). The inverse association between lactation and diabetes was slightly attenuated after adjustment for POPs. Age-stratified analyses showed that the inverse association between lactation periods and serum POP concentrations was observed primarily among participants <60 years, whereas age did not significantly modify the association between lactation history and diabetes prevalence. Conclusion Crudely-classified lifetime lactation history was inversely associated with concurrent serum POP concentrations and diabetes prevalence. Prospective studies are needed to clarify how lactation could complement diabetes prevention through decreasing the POP body burdens. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Center on the Early Life Origins of Disease and Johns Hopkins University
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2017

Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of neonatal mortality, and surviving infants are at increased risk for lifelong disabilities. Intrauterine inflammation is an etiological factor that drives PTB, and oxidative stress is associated with PTB. Nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that is the key regulator of the response to oxidative and inflammatory stress. Here, we used the established mouse model of intrauterine inflammation-induced PTB to determine whether Nrf2 is a modifier of susceptibility to PTB and prematurity-related morbidity and mortality in the offspring. We determined that Nr2-deficient (Nrf2


PubMed | Center on the Early Life Origins of Disease, Wenzhou University, Inova Translational Medicine Institute and New York University
Type: | Journal: International journal of obesity (2005) | Year: 2016

The intergenerational association of obesity may be driven by mother-to-newborn transmission of microbiota at birth. Yet cesarean delivery circumvents newborn acquisition of vaginal microbiota, and has been associated with greater childhood adiposity. Here we examined the independent and joint associations of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI; kgmWe prospectively followed 1441 racially and ethnically diverse mother-child dyads in the Boston Birth Cohort until age 5 years (range: 2.0-8.0 years). We used logistic regression to examine the independent and joint associations of delivery mode (cesarean and vaginal delivery) and pre-pregnancy BMI with childhood overweight or obesity (age-sex-specific BMI 85th percentile).Of 1441 mothers, 961 delivered vaginally and 480 by cesarean. Compared with vaginally delivered children, cesarean delivered children had 1.4 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-1.8) times greater odds of becoming overweight or obese in childhood, after adjustment for maternal age at delivery, race/ethnicity, education, air pollution exposure, pre-pregnancy BMI, pregnancy weight gain and birth weight. Compared with children born vaginally to normal weight mothers, after multivariable adjustment, odds of childhood overweight or obesity were highest in children born by cesarean delivery to obese mothers (odds ratio (OR): 2.8; 95% CI: 1.9-4.1), followed by children born by cesarean delivery to overweight mothers (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.5-3.2), then children born vaginally to obese mothers (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.3-2.6) and finally children born vaginally to overweight mothers (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2-2.3).In our racially and ethnically diverse cohort, cesarean delivery and pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity were associated with childhood overweight or obesity. Needed now are prospective studies that integrate measures of the maternal and infant microbiome, and other potentially explanatory covariates, to elucidate the mechanisms driving this association and to explore whether exposure to vaginal microbiota in cesarean delivered newborns may be an innovative strategy to combat the intergenerational cycle of obesity.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 20 December 2016; doi:10.1038/ijo.2016.219.


Liu X.,Northwestern University | Chen Q.,Northwestern University | Tsai H.-J.,Northwestern University | Tsai H.-J.,National Health Research Institute | And 16 more authors.
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis | Year: 2014

Maternal obesity is associated with a variety of common diseases in the offspring. One possible underlying mechanism could be maternal obesity induced alterations in DNA methylation. However, this hypothesis is yet to be tested. We performed epigenomic mapping of cord blood among 308 Black mother-infant pairs delivered at term at the Boston Medical Center using the Illumina HumanMethylation27 BeadChip. Linear regression and pathway analyses were conducted to evaluate the associations between DNA methylation levels and prepregnancy maternal BMI (<25, 25-30, ≥30 kg/m2). The methylation levels of 20 CpG sites were associated with maternal BMI at a significance level of P-value <10-4 in the overall sample, and boys and girls, separately. One CpG site remained statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons (FDR corrected P-value = 0.04) and was annotated to a potential cancer gene, ZCCHC10. Some of the other CpG site annotated genes appear to be critical to the development of cancers and cardiovascular diseases (i.e., WNT16, C18orf8, ANGPTL2, SAPCD2, ADCY3, PRR16, ERBB2, DOK2, PLAC1). Significant findings from pathway analysis, such as infectious and inflammatory and lipid metabolism pathways, lends support for the potential impact of maternal BMI on the above stated disorders. This study demonstrates that prepregnancy maternal BMI might lead to alterations in offspring DNA methylation in genes relevant to the development of a range of complex chronic diseases, providing evidence of trans-generational influence on disease susceptibility via epigenetic mechanism. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Gupta R.S.,Ann & Robert H Lurie Childrens Hospital Of Chicago | Gupta R.S.,Northwestern University | Walkner M.M.,Ann & Robert H Lurie Childrens Hospital Of Chicago | Greenhawt M.,University of Colorado at Denver | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice | Year: 2016

Background Many parents of food allergic children have concerns about the development of food allergies in their other children. Objective We sought to determine prevalence of food sensitization and clinical food allergy among siblings of food allergic children. Methods Two thousand eight hundred and thirty-four children were enrolled in the Chicago Family Cohort Food Allergy study. One thousand one hundred and twenty children (ages 0-21 years) with a food allergy (defined by a reported reaction history and evidence of food-specific IgE or skin prick test) and at least 1 biological sibling were included in this study. Results Among siblings of children with food allergy, 33.4% had no sensitization and no clinical symptoms to food. Fifty-three percent had a positive food serum-specific IgE or skin prick test, but no reported symptoms of food allergy. Only 13.6% of siblings were both sensitized and clinically reactive to the same food. Milk allergy was the most common allergy among siblings (5.9%), followed by egg allergy (4.4%) and peanut allergy (3.7%). Conclusions In a large cohort of food allergic families, only a small proportion of siblings were both sensitized and clinically reactive to a food. Sensitization without reactivity was common among siblings. Testing for food allergy in siblings without a history of clinical reactivity appears to be unjustified. Screening may lead to negative consequences related to potential misdiagnosis and unnecessary avoidance of a food. More data are needed to determine the absolute risk of food allergy development in siblings of food allergic children. © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology


PubMed | Ann & Robert H Lurie Childrens Hospital Of Chicago, Northwestern University, University of Colorado at Denver and Center on the Early Life Origins of Disease
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The journal of allergy and clinical immunology. In practice | Year: 2016

Many parents of food allergic children have concerns about the development of food allergies in their other children.We sought to determine prevalence of food sensitization and clinical food allergy among siblings of food allergic children.Two thousand eight hundred and thirty-four children were enrolled in the Chicago Family Cohort Food Allergy study. One thousand one hundred and twenty children (ages 0-21 years) with a food allergy (defined by a reported reaction history and evidence of food-specific IgE or skin prick test) and at least 1 biological sibling were included in this study.Among siblings of children with food allergy, 33.4% had no sensitization and no clinical symptoms to food. Fifty-three percent had a positive food serum-specific IgE or skin prick test, but no reported symptoms of food allergy. Only 13.6% of siblings were both sensitized and clinically reactive to the same food. Milk allergy was the most common allergy among siblings (5.9%), followed by egg allergy (4.4%) and peanut allergy (3.7%).In a large cohort of food allergic families, only a small proportion of siblings were both sensitized and clinically reactive to a food. Sensitization without reactivity was common among siblings. Testing for food allergy in siblings without a history of clinical reactivity appears to be unjustified. Screening may lead to negative consequences related to potential misdiagnosis and unnecessary avoidance of a food. More data are needed to determine the absolute risk of food allergy development in siblings of food allergic children.


Hong X.,Center on the Early Life Origins of Disease | Caruso D.,Center on the Early Life Origins of Disease | Kumar R.,Childrens Memorial Hospital | Liu R.,Northwestern University | And 5 more authors.
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2012

Background There are no available clinical tests that can accurately predict peanut allergy (PA) and/or anaphylaxis. This study is aimed at evaluating whether the component-resolved diagnostic (CRD) IgE and IgG4 tests can (i) distinguish PA from asymptomatic peanut sensitization (PS) and (ii) differentiate anaphylactic from nonanaphylactic PA. Methods This study included 20 nonatopic controls, 58 asymptomatically peanut-sensitized children, 55 nonanaphylactic, and 53 anaphylactic PA cases from the Chicago Food Allergy Study. IgE and IgG4 to 103 allergens were measured using the ImmunoCAP ISAC technology and were compared among each group of children. The random forest test was applied to estimate each allergen's ability to predict PA and/or peanut anaphylaxis. Results Peanut allergy cases (with or without anaphylaxis) had significantly higher IgE reactivity to Ara h 1-3 (peanut allergens) and Gly m 5-6 (soy allergens) than asymptomatically sensitized children (P < 0.00001). Similar but more modest relationships were found for IgG4 to Ara h 2 (P < 0.01). IgE to Ara h 2 was the major contributor to accurate discrimination between PA and asymptomatic sensitization. With an optimal cutoff point of 0.65 ISU-E, it conferred 99.1% sensitivity, 98.3% specificity, and a 1.2% misclassification rate in the prediction of PA, which represented a higher discriminative accuracy than IgE to whole peanut extract (P = 0.008). However, none of the IgE and/or IgG4 tests could significantly differentiate peanut anaphylaxis from nonanaphylactic PA. Conclusions IgE to Ara h 2 can efficiently differentiate clinical PA from asymptomatic PS, which may represent a major step forward in the diagnosis of PA. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


PubMed | Center on the Early Life Origins of Disease
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Allergy | Year: 2012

There are no available clinical tests that can accurately predict peanut allergy (PA) and/or anaphylaxis. This study is aimed at evaluating whether the component-resolved diagnostic (CRD) IgE and IgG4 tests can (i) distinguish PA from asymptomatic peanut sensitization (PS) and (ii) differentiate anaphylactic from nonanaphylactic PA.This study included 20 nonatopic controls, 58 asymptomatically peanut-sensitized children, 55 nonanaphylactic, and 53 anaphylactic PA cases from the Chicago Food Allergy Study. IgE and IgG4 to 103 allergens were measured using the ImmunoCAP ISAC technology and were compared among each group of children. The random forest test was applied to estimate each allergens ability to predict PA and/or peanut anaphylaxis.Peanut allergy cases (with or without anaphylaxis) had significantly higher IgE reactivity to Ara h 1-3 (peanut allergens) and Gly m 5-6 (soy allergens) than asymptomatically sensitized children (P < 0.00001). Similar but more modest relationships were found for IgG4 to Ara h 2 (P < 0.01). IgE to Ara h 2 was the major contributor to accurate discrimination between PA and asymptomatic sensitization. With an optimal cutoff point of 0.65 ISU-E, it conferred 99.1% sensitivity, 98.3% specificity, and a 1.2% misclassification rate in the prediction of PA, which represented a higher discriminative accuracy than IgE to whole peanut extract (P = 0.008). However, none of the IgE and/or IgG4 tests could significantly differentiate peanut anaphylaxis from nonanaphylactic PA.IgE to Ara h 2 can efficiently differentiate clinical PA from asymptomatic PS, which may represent a major step forward in the diagnosis of PA.

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