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Primack B.A.,University of Pittsburgh | Carroll M.V.,University of Pittsburgh | McNamara M.,Case Western Reserve University | Klem M.L.,University of Pittsburgh | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2012

Context: Video games represent a multibillion-dollar industry in the U.S. Although video gaming has been associated with many negative health consequences, it also may be useful for therapeutic purposes. The goal of this study was to determine whether video games may be useful in improving health outcomes. Evidence acquisition: Literature searches were performed in February 2010 in six databases: the Center on Media and Child Health Database of Research, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Reference lists were hand-searched to identify additional studies. Only RCTs that tested the effect of video games on a positive, clinically relevant health consequence were included. Study selection criteria were strictly defined and applied by two researchers working independently. Study background information (e.g., location, funding source); sample data (e.g., number of study participants, demographics); intervention and control details; outcomes data; and quality measures were abstracted independently by two researchers. Evidence synthesis: Of 1452 articles retrieved using the current search strategy, 38 met all criteria for inclusion. Eligible studies used video games to provide physical therapy, psychological therapy, improved disease self-management, health education, distraction from discomfort, increased physical activity, and skills training for clinicians. Among the 38 studies, a total of 195 health outcomes were examined. Video games improved 69% of psychological therapy outcomes, 59% of physical therapy outcomes, 50% of physical activity outcomes, 46% of clinician skills outcomes, 42% of health education outcomes, 42% of pain distraction outcomes, and 37% of disease self-management outcomes. Study quality was generally poor; for example, two thirds (66%) of studies had follow-up periods of <12 weeks, and only 11% of studies blinded researchers. Conclusions: There is potential promise for video games to improve health outcomes, particularly in the areas of psychological therapy and physical therapy. RCTs with appropriate rigor will help build evidence in this emerging area. © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

Haines J.,University of Guelph | McDonald J.,Harvard University | O'Brien A.,Harvard University | Sherry B.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 5 more authors.
JAMA Pediatrics | Year: 2013

IMPORTANCE: Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities exist across risk factors for childhood obesity. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of a home-based intervention to improve household routines known to be associated with childhood obesity among a sample of low-income, racial/ethnic minority families with young children. DESIGN: Randomized trial. SETTING: The intervention was delivered in the families' homes. PARTICIPANTS: The study involved 121 families with children aged 2 to 5 years who had a television (TV) in the room where he or she slept; 111 (92%) had 6-month outcome data (55 intervention and 56 control). The mean (SD) age of the children was 4.0 (1.1) years; 45% were overweight/obese. Fifty-two percent of the children were Hispanic, 34% were black, and 14% were white/other. Nearly 60% of the families had household incomes of $20 000 or less. INTERVENTIONS: The 6-month intervention promoted 4 household routines, family meals, adequate sleep, limiting TV time, and removing the TV from the child's bedroom, using (1) motivational coaching at home and by phone, (2) mailed educational materials, and (3) text messages. Control subjects were mailed materials focused on child development. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Change in parent report of frequency of family meals (times/wk), child sleep duration (hours/d), child weekday and weekend day TV viewing (hours/d), and the presence of a TV in the room where the child slept from baseline to 6 months. A secondary outcome was change in age- and sex-adjusted body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared). RESULTS: Compared with control subjects, intervention participants had increased sleep duration (0.75 hours/d; 95% CI, 0.06 to 1.44; P = .03), greater decreases in TV viewing on weekend days (-1.06 hours/d; 95% CI, -1.97 to -0.15; P = .02), and decreased body mass index (-0.40; 95% CI, -0.79 to 0.00; P = .05). No significant intervention effect was found for the presence of a TV in the room where the child slept or family meal frequency. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Our results suggest that promoting household routines, particularly increasing sleep duration and reducing TV viewing, may be an effective approach to reduce body mass index among low-income, racial/ethnic minority children. Longer-term studies are needed to determine maintenance of behavior change. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01565161.

Schmidt M.E.,Harvard University | Schmidt M.E.,Center on Media and Child Health | Haines J.,University of Guelph | O'Brien A.,Harvard University | And 4 more authors.
Obesity | Year: 2012

Screen-media use among young children is highly prevalent, disproportionately high among children from lower-income families and racial/ethnic minorities, and may have adverse effects on obesity risk. Few systematic reviews have examined early intervention strategies to limit TV or total screen time; none have examined strategies to discourage parents from putting TVs in their children's bedrooms or remove TVs if they are already there. In order to identify strategies to reduce TV viewing or total screen time among children < 12 years of age, we conducted a systematic review of seven electronic databases to June 2011, using the terms intervention and television, media, or screen time. Peer-reviewed intervention studies that reported frequencies of TV viewing or screen-media use in children under age 12 were eligible for inclusion. We identified 144 studies; 47 met our inclusion criteria. Twenty-nine achieved significant reductions in TV viewing or screen-media use. Studies utilizing electronic TV monitoring devices, contingent feedback systems, and clinic-based counseling were most effective. While studies have reduced screen-media use in children, there are several research gaps, including a relative paucity of studies targeting young children (n = 13) or minorities (n = 14), limited long-term (>6 month) follow-up data (n = 5), and few (n = 4) targeting removing TVs from children's bedrooms. Attention to these issues may help increase the effectiveness of existing strategies for screen time reduction and extend them to different populations. © 2011 The Obesity Society.

Xiao L.,University of Western Ontario | Elueze I.,University of Western Ontario | Kavanaugh J.R.,Center on Media and Child Health
Proceedings of the ASIST Annual Meeting | Year: 2014

The impetus to assist human rights researchers in data analysis is stronger than ever; however, little is known in the literature on human rights researchers' practices in collecting, managing, and analyzing their research data. In an attempt to address this gap, we interviewed human rights researchers and conducted an online questionnaire to understand the characteristics of the data they analyze, as well as their data analysis and management practices, such as their experiences with data analysis software programs. We also explored their expectations with respect to a qualitative data analysis (QDA) software program.

McKetta S.,Harvard University | Rich M.,Center on Media and Child Health
Pediatric Clinics of North America | Year: 2011

This article summarizes recent findings about associations between electronic screen media and childhood overweight/obesity, hypothesized mechanisms, and mediators. Recommendations are made for parents and clinicians. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

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