Tahiti, French Polynesia
Tahiti, French Polynesia

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Schmitt P.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Schmitt P.,Montpellier University | Schmitt P.,University of Southern California | Lorgeril J.D.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | And 4 more authors.
Developmental and Comparative Immunology | Year: 2012

Diverse families of antimicrobial peptides and proteins have been described in oysters. We investigated here how antimicrobials are involved in the immune response against a pathogenic strain of Vibrio splendidus. Oyster antimicrobials were shown to display a wide variety of expression profiles in hemocyte populations and tissues. Oyster defensins are constitutively expressed in specific tissues such as mantle (Cg-Defm) or hemocytes (Cg-Defhs), while Cg-BPI is inducible and Cg-Prp appears down-regulated in hemocytes upon infection. The migratory behavior of hemocytes that express the different antimicrobials was found to be involved in the oyster response to a pathogenic Vibrio infection. Indeed, it contributes to colocalize several antimicrobials that were shown here to have synergistic activities. We propose that such a synergy, which was evidenced both within and between families of antimicrobials, might compensate for the low concentration of antimicrobials in oyster tissues. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Gallardo P.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Gaxiola G.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Soberano S.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Taboada J.G.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Fish wastes has been used for many years as an alternative in feeds for aquaculture. In the present study weight gain of juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed diets including fish waste silage (WS), fish waste silage with soybean meal SBM (WS + S) or fish waste meal (WM) was compared. A conventional acidic silage process was applied to obtain from wastes (skin, heads, bones and viscera) of snapper (Lutjanus spp.), grunt (Haemulon plumieri), and grouper (Epinephelus spp.) an ingredient rich in protein. RESULTS: After 3 days ensilage more than 90% protein was hydrolysed. Waste material processed at pH 3.8 lost about 24% tryptophan. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) prevented lipid oxidation, as shown after 45 days with malonaldehyde production. Shrimp fed WS + S diet gained 0.7 g per week higher than those fed WS and WM diets with 0.3 g per week (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: WS processed with formic acid under conditions of low pH is beneficial for the white shrimp L. vannamei. It sustained reasonable weight gain combined with soybean meal in practical diets. On the other hand, BHT addition was beneficial in preventing oxidative action during silage preparation. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.


Cardona E.,Center Oceanologique du Pacifique | Cardona E.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Saulnier D.,Center Oceanologique du Pacifique | Lorgeoux B.,Center Oceanologique du Pacifique | And 3 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2015

This study compares the antioxidant and antimicrobial transcriptional expression of blue shrimps reared according to two different systems, BioFloc Technology (BFT) and Clear sea Water (CW) and their differential responses when facing an experimental sublethal hydrogen peroxide stress. After 30 days of rearing, juvenile shrimps were exposed to H2O2 stress at a concentration of 30ppm during 6h. The oxidative stress caused by H2O2 was examined in the digestive glands of the shrimp, in which antioxidant enzyme (AOE) and antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene expression were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that rearing conditions did not affect the expression of genes encoding AOEs or AMPs. However, H2O2 stress induced a differential response in expression between shrimps from the two rearing treatments (BFT and CW). Comparative analysis of the expression profiles indicates that catalase transcripts were significantly upregulated by H2O2 stress for BFT shrimps while no change was observed for CW shrimps. In contrast, H2O2 caused down-regulation of superoxide dismutase and glutathione transferase transcripts and of the three AMP transcripts studied (penaeidin 2 and 3, and crustin) for CW shrimps, while no effect was observed on BFT shrimp transcript levels. These results suggested that BFT shrimps maintained antioxidant and AMP responses after stress and therefore can effectively protect their cells against oxidative stress, while CW shrimp immune competence seems to decrease after stress. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Gaxiola G.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Gallardo P.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Simoes N.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Cuzon G.,Center Oceanologique du Pacifique
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society | Year: 2010

Red shrimp, Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, larvae's response to different concentrations of live foods (diatoms Chaetoceros gracilis: 20-100 × 103 cells/mL; flagellate Tetraselmis chuii: 2-10 × 103 cells/mL and Artemia nauplii [NA]: 1-5 NA/mL) was investigated in three experiments. Experimental assessments were based on four variables: survival rate, weight gain, development index (DI), and resistance to salinity stress. A combination of C. gracilis 80 × 103 cells/mL, T. chuii 2 × 103 cells/mL, and Artemia 4 NA/mL provided the best experimental response. Specifically, F. brasiliensis larvae fed with the above-mentioned optimal concentrations of microalgae and Artemia grew faster and reached the postlarval stage in less time (168 h) than larvae in other feeding regimes evaluated. The effect of C. gracilis concentration on larval growth, survival, and the DI demonstrated that microalgae-based foods could be a highly productive alternative to more traditional aquaculture feeding regimes. © Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2010.


Cardona E.,Center Oceanologique du Pacifique | Cardona E.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Lorgeoux B.,Center Oceanologique du Pacifique | Chim L.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | And 3 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to determine biofloc contributions to the antioxidant status and lipid nutrition of broodstock of Litopenaeus stylirostris in relationship with their reproductive performance and the health of larvae produced. Shrimp broodstock reared with BioFloc Technology (BFT) compared to Clear Water (CW) exhibited a higher health status with (i) a better final survival rate during the reproduction period (52.6% in CW against 79.8% in BFT); (ii) higher glutathione level (GSH) and total antioxidant status (TAS); (iii) reduced oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio; and (iv) a higher spawning rate and frequency as well as higher gonado-somatic index and number of spawned eggs. Finally, larvae from broodstock from BFT exhibited higher survival rates at the Zoe 2 (+. 37%) and Post Larvae 1 (+. 51%) stages when compared with those from females from CW treatment. The improved reproductive performance of the broodstock and higher larvae survival rate resulting from BFT treatment may be linked to the dietary supplement obtained by the shrimp from natural productivity during BFT rearing. Indeed, our study confirms that biofloc particulates represent a potential source of dietary glutathione and a significant source of lipids, particularly essential phospholipids and n. -. 3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) for shrimps. Thus, broodstock from BFT treatment accumulated phospholipids, n. -. 3 HUFA and arachidonic acid, which are necessary for vitellogenesis, embryogenesis and pre-feeding larval development. The predominant essential fatty acids, arachidonic acid (ARA), eicopentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), had levels in the eggs that were, respectively, 2.5, 2.8 and 3 fold higher for BFT compared to the CW treatment. Statement of relevance: Today, the influence of biofloc technology on shrimp broodstock is not described enough and no information was available on the larvae quality.Moreover, two key pieces of new information emerge from the present study. Firstly, biofloc is a source of further dietary lipids that can act as energetic substrates, but also as a source of phospholipids and essential fatty acids necessary to sustain reproduction, embryonic and larval development. Second, improving the reproduction of the broodstock also leads to an improvement in the quality of the larvae.We think that our research is new and important to increase knowledge on biofloc topic. We believe that the paper will contribute to the development of more efficient and therefore more sustainable systems. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Marie B.,Center Oceanologique du Pacifique | Marie B.,University of Burgundy | Joubert C.,Center Oceanologique du Pacifique | Belliard C.,Center Oceanologique du Pacifique | And 6 more authors.
Amino Acids | Year: 2012

Nacre of the Pinctada pearl oyster shells is composed of 98% CaCO 3 and 2% organic matrix. The relationship between the organic matrix and the mechanism of nacre formation currently constitutes the main focus regarding the biomineralization process. In this study, we isolated a new nacre matrix protein in P. margaritifera and P. maxima, we called Pmarg- and Pmax-MRNP34 (methionine-rich nacre protein). MRNP34 is a secreted hydrophobic protein, which is remarkably rich in methionine, and which is specifically localised in mineralizing the epithelium cells of the mantle and in the nacre matrix. The structure of this protein is drastically different from those of the other nacre proteins already described. This unusual methionine-rich protein is a new member in the growing list of low complexity domain containing proteins that are associated with biocalcifications. These observations offer new insights to the molecular mechanisms of biomineralization. © Springer-Verlag 2011.


Joubert C.,Center Oceanologique du Pacifique | Piquemal D.,Skuldtech | Marie B.,University of Burgundy | Manchon L.,Skuldtech | And 5 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2010

Background: The shell of the pearl-producing bivalve Pinctada margaritifera is composed of an organic cell-free matrix that plays a key role in the dynamic process of biologically-controlled biomineralization. In order to increase genomic resources and identify shell matrix proteins implicated in biomineralization in P. margaritifera, high-throughput Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) pyrosequencing was undertaken on the calcifying mantle, combined with a proteomic analysis of the shell.Results: We report the functional analysis of 276 738 sequences, leading to the constitution of an unprecedented catalog of 82 P. margaritifera biomineralization-related mantle protein sequences. Components of the current "chitin-silk fibroin gel-acidic macromolecule" model of biomineralization processes were found, in particular a homolog of a biomineralization protein (Pif-177) recently discovered in P. fucata. Among these sequences, we could show the localization of two other biomineralization protein transcripts, pmarg-aspein and pmarg-pearlin, in two distinct areas of the outer mantle epithelium, suggesting their implication in calcite and aragonite formation. Finally, by combining the EST approach with a proteomic mass spectrometry analysis of proteins isolated from the P. margaritifera shell organic matrix, we demonstrated the presence of 30 sequences containing almost all of the shell proteins that have been previously described from shell matrix protein analyses of the Pinctada genus. The integration of these two methods allowed the global composition of biomineralizing tissue and calcified structures to be examined in tandem for the first time.Conclusions: This EST study made on the calcifying tissue of P. margaritifera is the first description of pyrosequencing on a pearl-producing bivalve species. Our results provide direct evidence that our EST data set covers most of the diversity of the matrix protein of P. margaritifera shell, but also that the mantle transcripts encode proteins present in P. margaritifera shell, hence demonstrating their implication in shell formation. Combining transcriptomic and proteomic approaches is therefore a powerful way to identify proteins involved in biomineralization. Data generated in this study supply the most comprehensive list of biomineralization-related sequences presently available among protostomian species, and represent a major breakthrough in the field of molluskan biomineralization. © 2010 Joubert et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Rosa R.D.,Montpellier University | Rosa R.D.,University of Sao Paulo | Vergnes A.,Montpellier University | de Lorgeril J.,Montpellier University | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Antilipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) have been described as highly cationic polypeptides with a broad spectrum of potent antimicrobial activities. In addition, ALFs have been shown to recognize LPS, a major component of the Gram-negative bacteria cell wall, through conserved amino acid residues exposed in the four-stranded β-sheet of their three dimensional structure. In penaeid shrimp, ALFs form a diverse family of antimicrobial peptides composed by three main variants, classified as ALF Groups A to C. Here, we identified a novel group of ALFs in shrimp (Group D ALFs), which corresponds to anionic polypeptides in which many residues of the LPS binding site are lacking. Both Group B (cationic) and Group D (anionic) shrimp ALFs were produced in a heterologous expression system. Group D ALFs were found to have impaired LPS-binding activities and only limited antimicrobial activity compared to Group B ALFs. Interestingly, all four ALF groups were shown to be simultaneously expressed in an individual shrimp and to follow different patterns of gene expression in response to a microbial infection. Group B was by far the more expressed of the ALF genes. From our results, nucleotide sequence variations in shrimp ALFs result in functional divergence, with significant differences in LPS-binding and antimicrobial activities. To our knowledge, this is the first functional characterization of the sequence diversity found in the ALF family. © 2013 Rosa et al.


PubMed | Center Oceanologique du Pacifique
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Chembiochem : a European journal of chemical biology | Year: 2011

The shell of pearl oysters is organized in multiple layers of CaCO(3) crystallites packed together in an organic matrix. Relationships between the components of the organic matrix and mechanisms of nacre formation currently constitute the main focus of research into biomineralization. In this study, we characterized the pearlin protein from the oyster Pinctada margaritifera (Pmarg); this shares structural features with other members of a matrix protein family, N14/N16/pearlin. Pmarg pearlin exhibits calcium- and chitin-binding properties. Pmarg pearlin transcripts are distinctively localized in the mineralizing tissue responsible for nacre formation. More specifically, we demonstrate that Pmarg pearlin is localized within the interlamellar matrix of nacre aragonite tablets. Our results support recent models for multidomain matrix protein involvement in nacreous layer formation. We provide evidence here for the existence of a conserved family of nacre-associated proteins in Pteriidae, and reassess the evolutionarily conserved set of biomineralization genes related to nacre formation in this taxa.


PubMed | French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea, CNRS Host-Pathogen-Environment Interactions Laboratory and Center Oceanologique du Pacifique
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Fish & shellfish immunology | Year: 2015

This study compares the antioxidant and antimicrobial transcriptional expression of blue shrimps reared according to two different systems, BioFloc Technology (BFT) and Clear sea Water (CW) and their differential responses when facing an experimental sublethal hydrogen peroxide stress. After 30 days of rearing, juvenile shrimps were exposed to H2O2 stress at a concentration of 30 ppm during 6 h. The oxidative stress caused by H2O2 was examined in the digestive glands of the shrimp, in which antioxidant enzyme (AOE) and antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene expression were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that rearing conditions did not affect the expression of genes encoding AOEs or AMPs. However, H2O2 stress induced a differential response in expression between shrimps from the two rearing treatments (BFT and CW). Comparative analysis of the expression profiles indicates that catalase transcripts were significantly upregulated by H2O2 stress for BFT shrimps while no change was observed for CW shrimps. In contrast, H2O2 caused down-regulation of superoxide dismutase and glutathione transferase transcripts and of the three AMP transcripts studied (penaeidin 2 and 3, and crustin) for CW shrimps, while no effect was observed on BFT shrimp transcript levels. These results suggested that BFT shrimps maintained antioxidant and AMP responses after stress and therefore can effectively protect their cells against oxidative stress, while CW shrimp immune competence seems to decrease after stress.

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