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Tahiti, French Polynesia

Gallardo P.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Martinez G.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Palomino G.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Paredes A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society

The effects of two microencapsulated feeds were evaluated on development, growth, survival, proteolytic activity, and biochemical composition of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, larvae. The treatments were: (1) basal microcapsules (BM), (2) microcapsules containing krill hydrolysate (BMK), and (3) live food control (LFC: Artemia franciscana nauplii) with all treatments receiving algae (Chaetoceros ceratosporum and Tetraselmis chuii). No significant differences were found in development index and survival among larvae. Growth rate was significantly higher in larvae fed LFC (15±0.06%/d) as compared with those offered the BM diet (7.5±0.5%/d) with the BMK (11±0.04%/d) treatment producing intermediate results. The activity of total proteases and chymotrypsin decreased significantly after Mysis I (MI) in larvae fed LFC or BMK. Protein content of larvae increased significantly toward PL1. The acylglycerides content in MIII fed on LFC (2.3±0.2%/dw) was higher than that MI fed BM (1±0.01%/dw). No difference was observed in the cholesterol (CH) content of the larvae. The acylglycerides/protein and cholesterol/protein ratios showed a decreasing pattern between MI and PL1, indicating that these two ratios were related to ontogenetic shifts. These results demonstrate improvements in microparticulate diets when krill hydrolysates are included in the formulation. © by the World Aquaculture Society 2013. Source

Schmitt P.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Schmitt P.,Montpellier University | Schmitt P.,University of Southern California | Lorgeril J.D.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | And 4 more authors.
Developmental and Comparative Immunology

Diverse families of antimicrobial peptides and proteins have been described in oysters. We investigated here how antimicrobials are involved in the immune response against a pathogenic strain of Vibrio splendidus. Oyster antimicrobials were shown to display a wide variety of expression profiles in hemocyte populations and tissues. Oyster defensins are constitutively expressed in specific tissues such as mantle (Cg-Defm) or hemocytes (Cg-Defhs), while Cg-BPI is inducible and Cg-Prp appears down-regulated in hemocytes upon infection. The migratory behavior of hemocytes that express the different antimicrobials was found to be involved in the oyster response to a pathogenic Vibrio infection. Indeed, it contributes to colocalize several antimicrobials that were shown here to have synergistic activities. We propose that such a synergy, which was evidenced both within and between families of antimicrobials, might compensate for the low concentration of antimicrobials in oyster tissues. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Gallardo P.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Gaxiola G.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Soberano S.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Taboada J.G.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture

BACKGROUND: Fish wastes has been used for many years as an alternative in feeds for aquaculture. In the present study weight gain of juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed diets including fish waste silage (WS), fish waste silage with soybean meal SBM (WS + S) or fish waste meal (WM) was compared. A conventional acidic silage process was applied to obtain from wastes (skin, heads, bones and viscera) of snapper (Lutjanus spp.), grunt (Haemulon plumieri), and grouper (Epinephelus spp.) an ingredient rich in protein. RESULTS: After 3 days ensilage more than 90% protein was hydrolysed. Waste material processed at pH 3.8 lost about 24% tryptophan. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) prevented lipid oxidation, as shown after 45 days with malonaldehyde production. Shrimp fed WS + S diet gained 0.7 g per week higher than those fed WS and WM diets with 0.3 g per week (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: WS processed with formic acid under conditions of low pH is beneficial for the white shrimp L. vannamei. It sustained reasonable weight gain combined with soybean meal in practical diets. On the other hand, BHT addition was beneficial in preventing oxidative action during silage preparation. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry. Source

Gaxiola G.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Gallardo P.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Simoes N.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Cuzon G.,Center Oceanologique du Pacifique
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society

Red shrimp, Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, larvae's response to different concentrations of live foods (diatoms Chaetoceros gracilis: 20-100 × 103 cells/mL; flagellate Tetraselmis chuii: 2-10 × 103 cells/mL and Artemia nauplii [NA]: 1-5 NA/mL) was investigated in three experiments. Experimental assessments were based on four variables: survival rate, weight gain, development index (DI), and resistance to salinity stress. A combination of C. gracilis 80 × 103 cells/mL, T. chuii 2 × 103 cells/mL, and Artemia 4 NA/mL provided the best experimental response. Specifically, F. brasiliensis larvae fed with the above-mentioned optimal concentrations of microalgae and Artemia grew faster and reached the postlarval stage in less time (168 h) than larvae in other feeding regimes evaluated. The effect of C. gracilis concentration on larval growth, survival, and the DI demonstrated that microalgae-based foods could be a highly productive alternative to more traditional aquaculture feeding regimes. © Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2010. Source

Joubert C.,Center Oceanologique du Pacifique | Piquemal D.,Skuldtech | Marie B.,University of Burgundy | Manchon L.,Skuldtech | And 5 more authors.
BMC Genomics

Background: The shell of the pearl-producing bivalve Pinctada margaritifera is composed of an organic cell-free matrix that plays a key role in the dynamic process of biologically-controlled biomineralization. In order to increase genomic resources and identify shell matrix proteins implicated in biomineralization in P. margaritifera, high-throughput Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) pyrosequencing was undertaken on the calcifying mantle, combined with a proteomic analysis of the shell.Results: We report the functional analysis of 276 738 sequences, leading to the constitution of an unprecedented catalog of 82 P. margaritifera biomineralization-related mantle protein sequences. Components of the current "chitin-silk fibroin gel-acidic macromolecule" model of biomineralization processes were found, in particular a homolog of a biomineralization protein (Pif-177) recently discovered in P. fucata. Among these sequences, we could show the localization of two other biomineralization protein transcripts, pmarg-aspein and pmarg-pearlin, in two distinct areas of the outer mantle epithelium, suggesting their implication in calcite and aragonite formation. Finally, by combining the EST approach with a proteomic mass spectrometry analysis of proteins isolated from the P. margaritifera shell organic matrix, we demonstrated the presence of 30 sequences containing almost all of the shell proteins that have been previously described from shell matrix protein analyses of the Pinctada genus. The integration of these two methods allowed the global composition of biomineralizing tissue and calcified structures to be examined in tandem for the first time.Conclusions: This EST study made on the calcifying tissue of P. margaritifera is the first description of pyrosequencing on a pearl-producing bivalve species. Our results provide direct evidence that our EST data set covers most of the diversity of the matrix protein of P. margaritifera shell, but also that the mantle transcripts encode proteins present in P. margaritifera shell, hence demonstrating their implication in shell formation. Combining transcriptomic and proteomic approaches is therefore a powerful way to identify proteins involved in biomineralization. Data generated in this study supply the most comprehensive list of biomineralization-related sequences presently available among protostomian species, and represent a major breakthrough in the field of molluskan biomineralization. © 2010 Joubert et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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