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Puillandre N.,French Natural History Museum | Cruaud C.,Center National Of Sequenage | Kantor Y.I.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology
Journal of Molluscan Studies | Year: 2010

During a broad molecular taxonomic and phylogenetic survey of the gastropod superfamily Conoidea, 80 specimens of several species of the genus Gemmuloborsonia were sequenced for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. The genus, originally established for fossil species from the Plio-Pleistocene of the Philippines, now includes living species from bathyal depths of the Indo-Pacific Oceans. The molecular data demonstrated the presence of five separate entities, while only four 'morphospecies' could be isolated by visual examination. The two largest groups, representing separate species from the molecular data, were impossible to distinguish with certainty using shell or anatomical characters. To examine shell morphology in more detail the shape of the last whorl was analysed by Fourier analysis, and the Fourier coordinates were used in canonical variate analysis. The majority of the specimens were separated into two groups, but 21.6% of the specimens were impossible to distinguish by morphological characters. One of these two forms was attributed to the known species Gemmuloborsonia moosai Sysoev & Bouchet, 1996, while the other is described as a new species Gemmuloborsonia clandestina. Bathytoma colorata Sysoev & Bouchet, 2001 is transferred to Gemmuloborsonia on the basis of molecular analysis and radular morphology. Another species, represented in our material by a single specimen, remains undescribed.


Boisselier-Dubayle M.-C.,French Natural History Museum | Bonillo C.,French Natural History Museum | Cruaud C.,Center National Of Sequenage | Couloux A.,Center National Of Sequenage | And 2 more authors.
Comptes Rendus - Biologies | Year: 2010

The Glypheidea is a group of lobster-like decapods that appeared in the Triassic and that was thought to be extinct until 1975, when a specimen of the species Neoglyphea inopinata was caught off the Philippines. More recently, in 2005, a specimen of another glypheid species, Laurentaeglyphea neocaledonica, was discovered near New Caledonia. Here, we construct a decapod molecular data set including the two extant glypheid species sequenced from eight nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Our study strongly shows that the two extant genera of glypheids cluster together, and further confirms the status of Glypheidea as a separate infraorder. Moreover the reptantian decapods are divided into two major groups, one including Brachyura, Anomura, and Axiidea, and the other including Astacidea, Polychelida, Achelata, and Glypheidea. Although commonly nicknamed 'Jurassic shrimps' and considered as 'living fossils', glypheids are therefore a derived decapod lineage. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS on behalf of Académie des sciences.


Hassanin A.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute | Delsuc F.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Ropiquet A.,University of the Western Cape | Hammer C.,Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation | And 8 more authors.
Comptes Rendus - Biologies | Year: 2012

The order Cetartiodactyla includes cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises) that are found in all oceans and seas, as well as in some rivers, and artiodactyls (ruminants, pigs, peccaries, hippos, camels and llamas) that are present on all continents, except Antarctica and until recent invasions, Australia. There are currently 332 recognized cetartiodactyl species, which are classified into 132 genera and 22 families. Most phylogenetic studies have focused on deep relationships, and no comprehensive time-calibrated tree for the group has been published yet. In this study, 128 new complete mitochondrial genomes of Cetartiodactyla were sequenced and aligned with those extracted from nucleotide databases. Our alignment includes 14,902 unambiguously aligned nucleotide characters for 210 taxa, representing 183 species, 107 genera, and all cetartiodactyl families. Our mtDNA data produced a statistically robust tree, which is largely consistent with previous classifications. However, a few taxa were found to be para- or polyphyletic, including the family Balaenopteridae, as well as several genera and species. Accordingly, we propose several taxonomic changes in order to render the classification compatible with our molecular phylogeny. In some cases, the results can be interpreted as possible taxonomic misidentification or evidence for mtDNA introgression. The existence of three new cryptic species of Ruminantia should therefore be confirmed by further analyses using nuclear data. We estimate divergence times using Bayesian relaxed molecular clock models. The deepest nodes appeared very sensitive to prior assumptions leading to unreliable estimates, primarily because of the misleading effects of rate heterogeneity, saturation and divergent outgroups. In addition, we detected that Whippomorpha contains slow-evolving taxa, such as large whales and hippos, as well as fast-evolving taxa, such as river dolphins. Our results nevertheless indicate that the evolutionary history of cetartiodactyls was punctuated by four main phases of rapid radiation during the Cenozoic era: the sudden occurrence of the three extant lineages within Cetartiodactyla (Cetruminantia, Suina and Tylopoda); the basal diversification of Cetacea during the Early Oligocene; and two radiations that involve Cetacea and Pecora, one at the Oligocene/Miocene boundary and the other in the Middle Miocene. In addition, we show that the high species diversity now observed in the families Bovidae and Cervidae accumulated mainly during the Late Miocene and Plio-Pleistocene. © 2011 Académie des sciences.


Nicolas V.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute | Missoup A.-D.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute | Missoup A.-D.,University of Douala | Colyn M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 2 more authors.
African Zoology | Year: 2012

We studied the phylogeographical structure of Praomys misonnei (Rodentia: Muridae) in west-Central Africa based on 113 individuals from 31 localities and the sequencing of two mitochondrial genes (Cytb and CO1). Two clades can be identified through maximum likelihood, bayesian and network analyses: the first one is limited to the Korup National Park, while the second one has a broad geographical distribution in west-Central Africa. The second clade can be further divided into three sub-clades. The results of neutrality tests and mismatch distributions indicate that a population expansion occurred in these sub-clades. During the middle or upper Pleistocene, the west-Central African populations of P. misonnei may have been isolated in four different forest refugia, followed by population expansion and secondary contact during more humid periods. High genetic diversity was observed in the region of the Bakossi highlands, and the Cameroon Volcanic Line limits the geographical distribution of clades. Thus it seems likely that this volcanic line has in the past constituted a barrier that prevented the eastwest exchange between P. misonnei populations through the expansion of the montane forest habitat. Our results also highlight the role of the Sanaga and Ogoou-Ivindo rivers in shaping P. misonnei genetic structure.

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