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Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Raebild A.,Copenhagen University | Hansen U.B.,Copenhagen University | Kambou S.,Center National Of Semences Forestieres
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2012

Because of intensification of agriculture and the change towards a dryer climate, concerns have been raised about regeneration of trees in agroforestry parklands. We investigated the regeneration of Vitellaria paradoxa, Parkia biglobosa and other species in a parkland in Nobéré, Burkina Faso. Studies were carried out in fields and fallows in two zones differing in cultivation intensity. Inventories of adult trees and regeneration plots were used to assess regeneration, and permanent plots under trees were established to monitor regeneration during 21/2 years. For V. paradoxa, densities of mature trees were high. There were many trees in small diameter classes, especially in fallows. Seedling densities were higher under tree crowns than outside and higher in the less intensively cultivated zone. The number of seedlings was high in the rainy season, but decreased in the dry season. Densities of P. biglobosa were lower (5 trees ha -1) and not significantly different between fields and fallows. P. biglobosa trees were almost exclusively old trees. The few seedlings recorded disappeared after one to a few months. Densities of other species were low in fields but higher in fallows. Despite an abundant regeneration of other species only few trees were found in large diameter classes because most species are considered as weeds by the farmers and are removed during cultivation. Lack of regeneration of P. biglobosa seems to be due to intensive seed harvest, leaving few seeds to germinate, and browsing animals destroying individuals that germinate. Institutional arrangements in the village disfavour regeneration of P. biglobosa as the trees belong to land chiefs. In order for P. biglobosa to regenerate it will be necessary to introduce direct sowing and/or plantations of the species, as well as to find a solution to the conflicting interests. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Lassen K.M.,Copenhagen University | Kjaer E.D.,Copenhagen University | Ouedraogo M.,Center National Of Semences Forestieres | Nielsen L.R.,Copenhagen University
Applications in Plant Sciences | Year: 2014

Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for an indigenous fruit tree, Parkia biglobosa , as a tool to study reproductive biology and population structure. Here we use the primers to determine the number of fathers per pod. Methods and Results: Microsatellite loci were enriched in a genomic sample and isolated using pyrosequencing. Eleven primer pairs were characterized in two populations of P. biglobosa in Burkina Faso (each with 40 trees). The number of alleles per locus ranged from eight to 15, and one locus had null alleles. We genotyped seeds from 24 open-pollinated pods. The genotypic profi les of seeds per pod suggest that all seeds are outcrossed and that only one pollen donor sires all ovules in a single fruit. Conclusions: Ten microsatellite markers were highly polymorphic. All seeds per pod of P. biglobosa were full siblings. The markers will be useful for reproductive and population genetic studies. © 2014 Bhawana et al.

Jensen J.S.,Copenhagen University | Bayala J.,Institute Of Lenvironnement Et Of Recherches Agricoles | Sanou H.,Institute dEconomie Rurale | Korbo A.,Institute dEconomie Rurale | And 6 more authors.
New Forests | Year: 2011

The Baobab tree (Adansonia digitata L.) is a key multipurpose species for the African region. In the recent years there has been an extended commercial interest for different A. digitata products. As a spectacular African key species there has been a growing interest from NGO′s and various research groups. A research group, focussing on the following countries Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger, has participated in a concerted research action with cross counter disciplinary cooperation between plant physiology, population genetics, tree breeding, food science, and socioeconomics. This paper presents a review and the way knowledge gaps are being addressed using the above mentioned approach. The overall work was initiated in 2005-2006 when a large collection of A. digitata seeds was carried out in 15 African countries. Fourteen populations were selected in Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger including more than 400 superior trees, and many of the trees have been selected along with farmers in a participatory process. Studies have been initiated in all countries on geographic variation of growth, adaptive and phenological traits. This includes studies in the nursery, establishment of international provenance series, seed orchards and studies of gene flow and phylogeographic variation with various markers. Specific nursery trials have been established in order to study provenance and progeny performance related to drought stress. Several stress related characteristics are being measured. Preliminary observations showed large morphological variation between African provenances of A. digitata. Food properties of plant parts have been studied within and between populations. This includes studies of total biomass production, vitamin A, B1, B2, and various minerals. The influence of stress will be related to these parameters. Fruits, which are rich in sugar and vitamin C, are used as an ingredient in juice and other foods. Seeds can be used directly as food ingredient or in fermented condition (Maari). The fermentation process was previously poorly described. Therefore, the microorganisms associated with Baobab seeds fermentation have been identified and a starter cultures for control production has been proposed. The efficiency of dissemination of superior A. digitata trees depends on vegetative propagation. Various grafting methods are currently being tested in cooperation with farmers. Micropropagation is tested as well as a method for clone propagation. The accumulated knowledge will be applied for a domestication strategy of A. digitata in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. The outcome from this study will be guidelines for protection and management of the germplasm of A. digitata resources. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Raebild A.,Copenhagen University | Larsen A.S.,Copenhagen University | Jensen J.S.,Copenhagen University | Ouedraogo M.,Copenhagen University | And 8 more authors.
New Forests | Year: 2011

Fruit trees play an important nutritional role for livelihoods of rural people in the West African Sahel through provision of energy and nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, and proteins. Research on the domestication of local fruit trees has started recently through projects concentrating on some of the most important indigenous species of dry West Africa, i. e. Adansonia digitata, Parkia biglobosa, Tamarindus indica, Vitellaria paradoxa and Ziziphus mauritiana. We present a status of finalised and ongoing domestication research with the aim of defining research gaps that would need to be covered by future research activities to obtain higher yields and better quality fruits. Germplasm collection in central West Africa has been intense compared to elsewhere in the species' distribution areas, but conservation status of the material is poor since it is only planted in few trials. Knowledge of genetic parameters, especially for fruit traits, is almost absent, but characterisation of genotypes is underway for some of the species. Mating systems and patterns are still unknown for many species. Efficient vegetative propagation based on simple techniques was shown to be possible for all species except P. biglobosa. In order to secure immediate as well as long term gains, we recommend combining clonal propagation of selected plus individuals with recombination and breeding of selected genotypes. We discuss whether local institutions in the Sahel have the financial capacity to carry out long term breeding programmes, and suggest that efforts should be made to find new ways of disseminating improved germplasm. © 2010 The Author(s).

Ouedraogo M.,Center National Of Semences Forestieres | Ouedraogo M.,Copenhagen University | Raebild A.,Copenhagen University | Nikiema A.,Center National Of Semences Forestieres | And 2 more authors.
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2012

Parkia biglobosa is a traditional economic tree legume of considerable multipurpose importance in the sudano-sahelian region in Africa. The species grows in multiple climatic zones with precipitation ranging from 600 to 2,500 mm a year and its natural distribution extends from Senegal and Guinea in West Africa to Uganda in Central Africa. In the present paper, a range wide sample of 25 provenances of P. biglobosa was tested in Burkina Faso, West Africa at two sites; Gonse (latitude 12°25′N; longitude 1°20′W; altitude 280 m) in the north-sudanian zone and at Dinderesso (latitude 11°18′N; longitude 4°35′W; altitude 425 m) in the south-sudanian zone. Based on analysis of survival and growth traits, we provide evidence of substantial genetic differentiation between P. biglobosa populations within West Africa. Height growth was best at Gonse, while the survival rate was higher at Dinderesso (61%) compared to Gonse (35%). Links between geographical parameters and the provenances performance were significant, and interesting geographic patterns were observed. Our results point towards superior fitness of the local Burkina Faso populations, and we speculate that presence of a continuum of locally adapted populations can be a part of the explanation for the species' ability to thrive under quite different climatic conditions across West Africa. Based on the findings, we suggest recommendations for seed deployment and conservation strategies of the species in the West African Sahel. This is particularly important when considering the on-going climate change. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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