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Terman D.S.,Jenomic Research Institute | Serier A.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon | Dauwalder O.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon | Dauwalder O.,Center National Of References Des Staphylocoques | And 10 more authors.
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology | Year: 2013

The egcSEs comprise five genetically linked staphylococcal enterotoxins, SEG, SEI, SElM, SElN, and SElO and two pseudotoxins which constitute an operon present in up to 80% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. A preparation containing these proteins was recently used to treat advanced lung cancer with pleural effusion. We investigated the hypothesis that egcSEs induce nitric oxide (NO) and associated cytokine production and that these agents may be involved in tumoricidal effects against a broad panel of clinically relevant human tumor cells. Preliminary studies showed that egcSEs and SEA activated T cells (range: 11-25%) in a concentration dependent manner. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with equimolar quantities of egcSEs expressed NO synthase and generated robust levels of nitrite (range: 200-250 μM), a breakdown product of NO; this reaction was inhibited by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) (0.3 mM), an NO synthase antagonist. Cell free supernatants (CSFs) of all egcSE-stimulated PBMCs were also equally effective in inducing concentration dependent tumor cell apoptosis in a broad panel of human tumor cells. The latter effect was due in part to the generation of NO and TNF-α since it was significantly abolished by L-NMMA, anti-TNF-α antibodies, respectively, and a combination thereof. A hierarchy of tumor cell sensitivity to these CFSs was as follows: lung carcinoma > osteogenic sarcoma > melanoma > breast carcinoma >neuroblastoma. Notably, SEG induced robust activation of NO/TNFα-dependent tumor cell apoptosis comparable to the other egcSEs and SEA despite TNF-α and IFN-γ levels that were 2 and 8 fold lower, respectively, than the other egcSEs and SEA. Thus, egcSEs produced by S. aureus induce NO synthase and the increased NO formation together with TNF-α appear to contribute to egcSE-mediated apoptosis against a broad panel of human tumor cells. © 2013 Terman, Serier, Dauwalder, Badiou, Dutour, Thomas, Brun, Bienvenu, Etienne, Vandenesch and Lina. Source

Saadatian-Elahi M.,Center National Of References Des Staphylocoques | Tristan A.,Center National Of References Des Staphylocoques | Tristan A.,University of Lyon | Laurent F.,Center National Of References Des Staphylocoques | And 15 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Acquisition of nasal Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonization by contaminated hands is likely an important determinant of its nasal carriage rate in health care and lab setting. The objective of our cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of nasal methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) or -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage among health care professionals (HCPs) attending an international symposium and to study the association between compliance with hygiene rules, individual-related parameters, and medical conditions with nasal S. aureus carriage in this population. After obtaining consent, two nasal swabs were collected. Nasal MSSA and MRSA carriage was measured by the: i) molecular approach targeting spa, mecA and mecA-orfX junction sequences, and ii) culture on selective S. aureus media combined with mecA molecular detection of isolated strains. Information on compliance with hygiene rules, demographic variables, sector of activity and long-term medication was collected by anonymous questionnaire. The participation rate was 32.3%. In total, 176 subjects from 34 countries were included in the analysis. S. aureus was isolated from the nasal swabs of 57 (32.4%) subjects, of whom 3 (5.3%) harbored MRSA strains. Overall, 123 subjects reported working in microbiology laboratories with direct manipulation of S. aureus, and 29 acknowledged regular contacts with patients. In this exposed population, hydroalcoholic solutions appeared to have a significant protective effect against nasal S. aureus carriage (OR = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.15-0.85). Hospital work was associated with increased risk of nasal S. aureus carriage (OR = 2.38; 95% CI: 1.07-5.29). The results of this study showed that compliance with basic rules of hygiene, such as the use of hydro-alcoholic solutions, could reduce the risk of nasal S. aureus colonization. Hydro-alcoholic solution could interrupt auto-transmission of the pathogen, consequently decreasing the overall nasal carriage rate, specifically in transient carriers. © 2013 Saadatian-Elahi et al. Source

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