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Nogareda F.,French Institute for Public Health Surveillance InVS | Nogareda F.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Le Strat Y.,French Institute for Public Health Surveillance InVS | Villena I.,Center National Of Reference Of La Toxoplasmose | And 2 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2014

Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis due to Toxoplasma gondii, a ubiquitous protozoan parasite of warm-blooded animals including humans. In pregnant women, primary infection can cause congenital toxoplasmosis resulting in severe malformations in the newborn. Since 1978, public health authorities in France have implemented a congenital toxoplasmosis prevention programme, including monthly serological screening of all seronegative pregnant women, and treatment in case of seroconversion. However, this programme does not produce systematic surveillance data on incidence and prevalence. Our objective was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of T. gondii infection, and the incidence of seroconversion during pregnancy in women in France. We used a catalytic model to estimate incidence and prevalence of Toxoplasma infection between 1980 and 2020 in women of childbearing age. We used age-and time-specific seroprevalence data obtained from the National Perinatal Surveys (NPS) conducted in 1995, 2003 and 2010. We assumed that incidence depends both on age and calendar time, and can be expressed as the product of two unknown functions. We also estimated incidence of seroconversion during pregnancy in 2010 from the NPS and the National Surveillance of Congenital Toxoplasmosis (ToxoSurv). We combined data of 42208 women aged 15-45 years with serology available from the three NPS. For women aged 30 years the modelled incidence decreased from 7·5/1000 susceptible women in 1980 to 3·5/1000 in 2000. In 2010 the incidence was 2·4/1000. The predicted incidence and prevalence for 2020 was 1·6/1000 and 27%, respectively. The incidence of seroconversion during pregnancy in 2010 was estimated at 2·1/1000 susceptible pregnant women (95% CI 1·3-3·1) from the NPS and 1·9 (95% CI 1·8-2·1) from ToxoSurv. Incidence and prevalence of Toxoplasma infection has decreased markedly during the last 30 years. This decrease may be explained by a lower exposure to the parasite by changes in food habits and by improved hygiene practices in meat production. Modelled estimations were consistent with estimates observed in other studies conducted previously in France. The catalytic modelling provides reliable estimates of incidence and prevalence of Toxoplasma infection over time. This approach might be useful for evaluating preventive programme for toxoplasmosis. © 2014 Cambridge University Press. Source

Blaga R.,National Veterinary School of Alfort | Blaga R.,Laboratoire Of Sante Animale | Aubert D.,Center National Of Reference Of La Toxoplasmose | Perret C.,Laboratoire Of Sante Animale | And 7 more authors.
Revue Francophone des Laboratoires | Year: 2015

Toxoplasmosis is a disease widely distributed throughout the world. It is caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan parasite, having the Felidae as final host (the cat) and warm-blooded vertebrates as intermediate hosts. Human infection is mainly orally, either by the ingestion of oocysts excreted with the cat faeces or by ingestion of tissue cysts which may be present in a wide variety of meat products. Direct transmission from a cat to its owner is probably less common; however the cat population represents the main source of environmental contamination. In France, nationwide studies that have been conducted in fresh mutton, beef and pork meat intended for human consumption, have highlight a seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii which varies according to animal species and age from 2.46% for piglets to 69.5% for adult sheep. The role of wildlife as hosts of the parasite should also to be considered in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis firstly as a vector and secondly as a potential human source of contamination. In French Guyana, the hypothesis of the existence of a wild cycle of Toxoplasma gondii has been present for the last several years, involving the wild felids and their prey, mammals and birds, some of which beeing hunting products for humans. © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

Yera H.,University of Paris Descartes | Yera H.,Center National Of Reference Of La Toxoplasmose | Paris L.,Hopitaux Universitaires Pitie Salpetriere Charles Foix | Paris L.,Center National Of Reference Of La Toxoplasmose | And 4 more authors.
Revue Francophone des Laboratoires | Year: 2015

The laboratories of medical biology play an important role to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis by ensuring the compulsory serological screening of pregnant women. A primo-infection or seroconversion during pregnancy might lead to a foetal infection, congenital toxoplasmosis. In case of acute infection during pregnancy, the infection has to be confirmed and dated in order to evaluate the risks of vertical transmission and severity of the infection. The serum samples of the women would be sent in an expert laboratory. If the infection is confirmed, the woman would be addressed in a clinical reference center having an expertise in congenital toxoplasmosis. The French national reference center of toxoplasmosis is dedicated, among others, to inform about the epidemiology, the diagnosis and the management of congenital toxoplasmosis (http://cnrtoxoplasmose.chu-reims.fr). © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

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