Center National Of Reference Du Paludisme

Marseille, France

Center National Of Reference Du Paludisme

Marseille, France
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Briolant S.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees | Wurtz N.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees | Zettor A.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees | Rogier C.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Background. Doxycycline is used in combination with quinine for malaria treatment or alone for malaria chemoprophylaxis. However, the occurrence of malaria after doxycycline chemoprophylaxis has been reported. Identification of genetic determinants that contribute to the susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to doxycycline will be important for the detection and surveillance of doxycycline resistance. Methods. Sequence analysis of 11 genes (pftufA, pfEF-TS, pfmdt, pftetQ, pfrps3, pfrps7, pfrps8, pfrps9, pfrps11, pfrpsl4, and pfrps17) and evaluation of pfmdt and pftetQ copy numbers by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were conducted in 90 African P falciparum isolates that were obtained from 14 countries and that belonged to phenotypic groups differing in their doxycycline median inhibitory concentrations. Results. We found that pfmdt copy number of >1 (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 7.09 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.58-31.82]; P = .011), pftetQ copy number of >1 (adjusted OR, 5.23 [95% CI, 1.06-25.77]; P = .042), and KYNNNN amino acid motif repeats of <3 (adjusted OR, 3.00 [95% CI, 1.02-8.86]; P = .046) were independently associated with decreased susceptibility to doxycycline. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that pfmdt and pftetQ copy numbers and pftetQ sequence polymorphisms are potential molecular markers of decreased in vitro susceptibility to doxycycline in African P falciparum isolates. © 2009 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.


Torrentino-Madamet M.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees | Torrentino-Madamet M.,Aix - Marseille University | Torrentino-Madamet M.,Center National Of Reference Du Paludisme | Fall B.,Laboratoire Detude Of La Chimiosensibilite Du Paludisme | And 18 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2015

Background: The emergence of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin and its derivatives, manifested as delayed parasite clearance following the treatment, has developed in Southeast Asia. The spread of resistance to artemisinin from Asia to Africa may be catastrophic for malaria control and elimination worldwide. Recently, mutations in the propeller domain of the Kelch 13 (k13) gene (PF3D71343700) were associated with in vitro resistance to artemisinin and with delayed clearance after artemisinin treatment in southern Asia. The aim of the study was to characterize the genetic variability of k13 and to evaluate the molecular resistance to artemisinin for the first time in Senegal. Methods: Plasmodium falciparum isolates were collected from 138 malaria patients in Dakar and its districts during the rainy season of October 2012 to January 2013 at the Hôpital Principal de Dakar. The k13 gene was amplified using nested PCR and sequenced. Results: A very limited variability within the k13 gene in Senegalese P. falciparum isolates was identified. No polymorphism was detected in the six k13-propeller blades. Only two mutations, T149S (6.3%) and K189T (42.2%), and one (N) or two (NN) asparagine insertion at the codon 142 (4.7 and 6.3%, respectively) were detected in the Plasmodium/Apicomplexa-specific domain. None of the polymorphisms associated with artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia was detected in the 138 P. falciparum from Dakar. Discussion: The present data do not suggest widespread artemisinin resistance in Dakar in 2012-2013. Notably, the C580Y, R539T or Y493H substitutions that were associated with in vitro resistance or delayed parasite clearance in Southeast Asia were not observed in Dakar, nor were any of the polymorphisms observed in parasites from Southeast Asia, nor the M476I mutation that was selected in vitro with artemisinin pressure in a African parasite line. © 2014 Torrentino-Madamet et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Fall B.,Laboratoire Detude Of La Chimiosensibilite Du Paludisme | Camara C.,Service des Urgences | Fall M.,Service de Reanimation Medicale | Nakoulima A.,Service de Pediatrie | And 8 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2015

Background: In 2006, the Senegalese National Malaria Control Programme recommended artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. Since the introduction of ACT, there have been very few reports on the level of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to anti-malarial drugs. An ex vivo susceptibility study was conducted on local isolates obtained from the Hôpital Principal de Dakar (Dakar, Senegal) from November 2013 to January 2014. Methods: Eighteen P. falciparum isolates were sussessfully assessed for ex vivo susceptibility to chloroquine (CQ), quinine (QN), monodesethylamodiaquine (MDAQ), the active metabolite of amodiaquine, mefloquine (MQ), lumefantrine (LMF), artesunate (AS), dihydroartemisinin (DHA), the active metabolite of artemisinin derivatives, pyronaridine (PND), piperaquine (PPQ), and, Proveblue (PVB), a methylene blue preparation, using the HRP2-based ELISA test. Results: The prevalence of isolates with reduced susceptibility was 55.6% for MQ, 50% for CQ, 5.6% for QN and MDAQ, and 0% for DHA, AS and LMF. The mean IC50 for PND, PPQ and PVB were 5.8 nM, 32.2 nM and 5.3 nM, respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of isolates with a reduced susceptibility to MQ remains high and stable in Dakar. Since 2004, the prevalence of CQ resistance decreased, but rebounded in 2013 in Dakar. PND, PPQ and PVB showed high in vitro activity in P. falciparum parasites from Dakar. © 2015 Fall et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


Ariey F.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Ariey F.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Witkowski B.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Amaratunga C.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | And 39 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2014

Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin derivatives in southeast Asia threatens malaria control and elimination activities worldwide. To monitor the spread of artemisinin resistance, a molecular marker is urgently needed. Here, using whole-genome sequencing of an artemisinin-resistant parasite line from Africa and clinical parasite isolates from Cambodia, we associate mutations in the PF3D7-1343700 kelch propeller domain ('K13-propeller') with artemisinin resistance in vitro and in vivo. Mutant K13-propeller alleles cluster in Cambodian provinces where resistance is prevalent, and the increasing frequency of a dominant mutant K13-propeller allele correlates with the recent spread of resistance in western Cambodia. Strong correlations between the presence of a mutant allele, in vitro parasite survival rates and in vivo parasite clearance rates indicate that K13-propeller mutations are important determinants of artemisinin resistance. K13-propeller polymorphism constitutes a useful molecular marker for large-scale surveillance efforts to contain artemisinin resistance in the Greater Mekong Subregion and prevent its global spread. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


Fall B.,Laboratoire Detude Of La Chimiosensibilite Du Paludisme | Diawara S.,Laboratoire Detude Of La Chimiosensibilite Du Paludisme | Sow K.,Laboratoire Detude Of La Chimiosensibilite Du Paludisme | Baret E.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees | And 10 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2011

Background: As a result of widespread chloroquine and sulphadoxine- pyrimethamine resistance, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) (which includes artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine) has been recommended as a first-line anti-malarial regimen in Senegal since 2006. Since then, there have been very few reports on the ex vivo susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to anti-malarial drugs. To examine whether parasite susceptibility has been affected by the widespread use of ACT, the ex vivo susceptibility of local isolates was assessed at the military hospital of Dakar. Methods. The ex vivo susceptibility of 93 P. falciparum isolates from Dakar was successfully determined using the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) ELISA for the following drugs: chloroquine (CQ), quinine (QN), mefloquine (MQ), monodesethylamodiaquine (MDAQ), lumefantrine (LMF), dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and doxycycline (DOX). Results: After transformation of the isolate IC 50in ratio of IC50according to the susceptibility of the 3D7 reference strain (isolate IC50/3D7 IC50), the prevalence of the in vitro resistant isolates with reduced susceptibility was 50% for MQ, 22% for CQ, 12% for DOX, 6% for both QN and MDAQ and 1% for the drugs LMF and DHA. The highest significant positive correlations were shown between responses to CQ and MDAQ (r = 0.569; P < 0.0001), LMF and QN (r = 0.511; P < 0.0001), LMF and DHA (r = 0.428; P = 0.0001), LMF and MQ (r = 0.413; P = 0.0002), QN and DHA (r = 0.402; P = 0.0003) and QN and MQ (r = 0.421; P = 0.0001). Conclusions: The introduction of ACT in 2002 has not induced a decrease in P. falciparum susceptibility to the drugs DHA, MDAQ and LMF, which are common ACT components. However, the prevalence of P. falciparum isolates with reduced susceptibility has increased for both MQ and DOX. Taken together, these data suggest that intensive surveillance of the P. falciparum in vitro susceptibility to anti-malarial drugs in Senegal is required. © 2011 Fall et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Center National Of Reference Du Paludisme, Mahidol University and Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees
Type: | Journal: Malaria journal | Year: 2015

Doxycycline is an antibiotic used in combination with quinine or artesunate for malaria treatment or alone for malaria chemoprophylaxis. Recently, one prophylactic failure has been reported, and several studies have highlighted in vitro doxycycline decreased susceptibility in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from different areas. The genetic markers that contribute to detecting and monitoring the susceptibility of P. falciparum to doxycycline, the pfmdt and pftetQ genes, have recently been identified. However, these markers are not sufficient to explain in vitro decreased susceptibility of P. falciparum to doxycycline. In this paper, the association between polymorphism of the small sub-unit ribosomal RNA apicoplastic gene pfssrRNA (PFC10_API0057) and in vitro susceptibilities of P. falciparum isolates to doxycycline were investigated.Doxycycline IC50 determinations using the hypoxanthine uptake inhibition assay were performed on 178 African and Thai P. falciparum isolates. The polymorphism of pfssrRNA was investigated in these samples by standard PCR followed by sequencing.No point mutations were found in pfssrRNA in the Thai or African isolates, regardless of the determined IC50 values.The pfssrRNA gene is not associated with in vitro decreased susceptibility of P. falciparum to doxycycline. Identifying new in vitro molecular markers associated with reduced susceptibility is needed, to survey the emergence of doxycycline resistance.


Pradines B.,Institute Of Medecine Tropicale Du Service Of Sante Des Armees | Pradines B.,Center National Of Reference Du Paludisme | Bertaux L.,Center National Of Reference Du Paludisme | Bertaux L.,Institute Of Medecine Tropicale Du Service Of Sante Des Armees | And 6 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2011

Decreased in vitro susceptibility to dihydroartemisinin (21.2 nM) and artesunate (16.3 nM) associated with decreased susceptibility or resistance to quinine (1131 nM), mefloquine (166 nM), lumefantrine (114 nM), pyronaridine (70.5 nM) and piperaquine (91.1 nM) is reported in a patient returning from South-East Asia after trekking along the Mekong from the south of Laos to the north of Thailand. Decreased in vitro susceptibility to artemisinin derivatives did not appear to be mediated by the number of copies of pfmdr1 or pfATPase6, pfcrt, pfmdr1 or pfmrp polymorphism. The high IC50to mefloquine of this Asian isolate was not associated with pfmdr1 copy number. Pfnhe-1 microsatellite ms4760 showed a profile 7 (ms4760-7) with three repeats of DNNND and one repeat of DDDNHNDNHNN, which is associated with high quinine reduced susceptibility. The patient recovered in three days without relapse after treatment with the association of quinine and doxycycline. Decreased in vitro susceptibility to quinine and the delayed effect of doxycycline may both have contributed to the delayed parasite clearance time, D4 (0.5%) and D7 (0.004%). The in vitro data, with IC50for dihydroartemisinin and artesunate were up to ten times those of the reference clone W2, which suggests that this isolate may be resistant to artemisinin derivatives, associated with a decreased susceptibility to quinine. © 2011 Pradines et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Cottrell G.,Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement | Cottrell G.,University of Paris Descartes | Musset L.,Institute Pasteur Of La Guyane | Musset L.,Center National Of Reference Du Paludisme | And 7 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

The usefulness of atovaquone-proguanil (AP) as an antimalarial treatment is compromised by the emergence of atovaquone resistance during therapy. However, the origin of the parasite mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation conferring atovaquone resistance remains elusive. Here, we report a patient-based stochastic model that tracks the intrahost emergence of mutations in the multicopy mtDNA during the first erythrocytic parasite cycles leading to the malaria febrile episode. The effect of mtDNA copy number, mutation rate, mutation cost, and total parasite load on the mutant parasite load per patient was evaluated. Computer simulations showed that almost any infected patient carried, after four to seven erythrocytic cycles, de novo mutant parasites at low frequency, with varied frequencies of parasites carrying varied numbers of mutant mtDNA copies. A large interpatient variability in the size of this mutant reservoir was found; this variability was due to the different parameters tested but also to the relaxed replication and partitioning of mtDNA copies during mitosis. We also report seven clinical cases in which AP-resistant infections were treated by AP. These provided evidence that parasiticidal drug concentrations against AP-resistant parasites were transiently obtained within days after treatment initiation. Altogether, these results suggest that each patient carries new mtDNA mutant parasites that emerge before treatment but are killed by high starting drug concentrations. However, because the size of this mutant reservoir is highly variable from patient to patient, we propose that some patients fail to eliminate all of the mutant parasites, repeatedly producing de novo AP treatment failuresCopyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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