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Lors C.,University of Lille Nord de France | Lors C.,Ecole Des Mines de Douai | Lors C.,Center National Of Recherche Sur Les Sites Et Sols Pollues | Ponge J.-F.,CNRS Mechanical Adaptation and Evolution | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2010

Five bioassays (inhibition of lettuce germination and growth, earthworm mortality, inhibition of springtail population growth, avoidance by springtails) were compared, using four coke factory soils contaminated by PAHs and trace elements, before and after biotreatment. For each bioassay, several endpoints were combined in an 'ecoscore', a measure of test sensitivity. Ecoscores pooled over all tested bioassays revealed that most organisms were highly sensitive to the concentration of 3-ring PAHs. When four soils were combined, behavioural tests using the springtail Folsomia candida showed higher ecoscores, i.e. they were most sensitive to soil contamination. However, despite overall higher sensitivity of behavioural tests, which could be used for cheap and rapid assessment of soil toxicity, especially at low levels of contamination, some test endpoints were more sensitive than others, and this may differ from a soil to another, pointing to the need for a battery of bioassays when more itemized results are expected. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Bert V.,INERIS | Bert V.,Center National Of Recherche Sur Les Sites Et Sols Pollues | Lors C.,Center National Of Recherche Sur Les Sites Et Sols Pollues | Lors C.,University of Lille Nord de France | And 6 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2012

Metal immobilization may contribute to the environmental management strategy of dredged sediment landfill sites contaminated by metals. In a field experiment, amendment effects and efficiency were investigated, focusing on plants, springtails and bacteria colonisation, metal extractability and sediment ecotoxicity. Conversely to hydroxylapatite (HA, 3% DW), the addition of Thomas Basic Slag (TBS, 5% DW) to a 5-yr deposited sediment contaminated with Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb and As resulted in a decrease in the 0.01 M Ca(NO 3) 2-extractable concentrations of Cd and Zn. Shoot Cd and Zn concentration in Calamagrostis epigejos, the dominant plant species, also decreased in the presence of TBS. The addition of TBS and HA reduced sediment ecotoxicity and improved the growth of the total bacterial population. Hydroxylapatite improved plant species richness and diversity and decreased antioxidant enzymes in C. Epigejos and Urtica dïoica. Collembolan communities did not differ in abundance and diversity between the different treatments. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Lions J.,Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres | Lions J.,Center National Of Recherche Sur Les Sites Et Sols Pollues | Guerin V.,Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres | Guerin V.,Center National Of Recherche Sur Les Sites Et Sols Pollues | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2010

Two complementary approaches were used to characterize arsenic and metal mobilizations from a dredged-sediment disposal site: a detailed field study combined with hydrogeochemical modeling. Contaminants in sediments were found to be mainly present as sulfides subject to oxidation. Secondary phases (carbonates, sulfates, (hydr)oxides) were also observed. Oxidative processes occurred at different rates depending on physicochemical conditions and contaminant contents in the sediment. Two distinct areas were identified on the site, each corresponding to a specific contaminant mobility behavior. In a reducing area, Fe and As were highly soluble and illustrated anoxic behavior. In well-oxygenated material, groundwater was highly contaminated in Zn, Cd and Pb. A third zone in which sediments and groundwater were less contaminated was also characterized. This study enabled us to prioritize remediation work, which should aim to limit infiltration and long-term environmental impact. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Lors C.,University of Lille Nord de France | Lors C.,Ecole Des Mines de Douai | Lors C.,Center National Of Recherche Sur Les Sites Et Sols Pollues | Ponge J.-F.,CNRS Mechanical Adaptation and Evolution | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2011

Bioassays on aqueous and solid phases of contaminated soils were compared, belonging to a wide array of trophic and response levels and using ecoscores for evaluating ecotoxicological and genotoxicological endpoints. The method was applied to four coke factory soils contaminated mainly with PAHs, but also to a lesser extent by heavy metals and cyanides. Aquatic bioassays do not differ from terrestrial bioassays when scaling soils according to toxicity but they are complementary from the viewpoint of ecological relevance. Both aquatic and terrestrial endpoints are strongly correlated with concentrations of 3-ring PAHs. This evaluation procedure allows us to propose a cost-effective battery which embraces a wide array of test organisms and response levels: it includes two rapid bioassays (Microtox ® and springtail avoidance), a micronucleus test and three bioassays of a longer duration (algal growth, lettuce germination and springtail reproduction). This battery can be recommended for a cost-effective assessment of polluted/remediated soils. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source


Huguet S.,Joseph Fourier University | Huguet S.,INERIS | Huguet S.,Center National Of Recherche Sur Les Sites Et Sols Pollues | Huguet S.,University of Pau and Pays de lAdour | And 11 more authors.
Environmental and Experimental Botany | Year: 2012

Arabidopsis halleri is a model plant investigated for Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation. In this work, A. halleri plants from metallicolous origin exposed to Cd and Zn were studied using an original combination of chemical and physical techniques to obtain insights on Cd hyperaccumulation mechanisms. In most cases, Zn and Cd accumulation in leaves increased with time and with their respective concentrations in hydroponics. At the rosette scale, 109Cd autoradiography showed that the amount of Cd increased with time but there was no clear trend in the localization of Cd in young or mature leaves. At the leaf scale, an enrichment of the petiole, central vein and trichomes was observed after 3 weeks. After 9 weeks, leaf edges were the most Cd-enriched tissues, and regions along leaf vascular bundles appeared less concentrated. Bulk Cd K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy showed that Cd was predominantly bound to COOH/OH groups belonging to organic acids and/or cell wall components. Cd bound to thiol groups was found as a secondary species (less than 25%). Thiols ligands might correspond, at least partly, to glutathione found in significant amount in aerial parts, but phytochelatins were not detected. These results show that the mechanisms of Cd storage and detoxification in A. halleri differ from what was previously found for Zn. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.. Source

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