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The CpG promoter methylation has been reported to occur frequently in bladder cancer. Moreover, analysis of gene methylation has been shown to be feasible from voided urine and can be detected with a high degree of sensitivity. The aim of this present study is to determine how methylation patterns of APC, RARβ and Survivin genes change during bladder carcinogenesis and to evaluate whether DNA methylation could be detected in urine sediment. Using the sensitive assay of MSP, we explored the promoter methylation status for the three genes in tumor specimens and urine sediment DNA from 32 bladder cancer patients. Methylation frequencies of the tested genes in tumor specimens were 100%, 75% and 84.4% for APC, RARβ and Survivin, respectively. Hypermethylation of APC was found in all pathological grades and stages of bladder cancer. More frequent promoter hypermethylation of RARβ and Survivin was observed in high grade tumors and the hypermethylation increased from low to high stages, but there was no significant correlation between stages/grades and hypermethylation of these two gene promoters. In order to investigate clinical usefulness for noninvasive bladder cancer detection, we further analyzed the methylation status in urine samples of bladder cancer patients. Methylation of the tested genes in urine sediment DNA was detected in the majority of cases that were hypermethylated in tumor samples (93.7%) and the frequencies were 79.3% 70.8% and 96.3% for APC, RARβ and Survivin, respectively. Our results indicate that methylation of APC, RARβ and Survivin gene promoters is a common finding in patients with bladder carcinoma. The ability to detect methylation not only in bladder tissue, but also in urine sediments, suggests that methylation markers are promising tools for noninvasive detection of bladder cancer.


Chirouze J.,CNRS Center for the Study of the Biosphere from Space | Boulet G.,CNRS Center for the Study of the Biosphere from Space | Jarlan L.,CNRS Center for the Study of the Biosphere from Space | Fieuzal R.,CNRS Center for the Study of the Biosphere from Space | And 8 more authors.
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences | Year: 2014

Instantaneous evapotranspiration rates and surface water stress levels can be deduced from remotely sensed surface temperature data through the surface energy budget. Two families of methods can be defined: the contextual methods, where stress levels are scaled on a given image between hot/dry and cool/wet pixels for a particular vegetation cover, and single-pixel methods, which evaluate latent heat as the residual of the surface energy balance for one pixel independently from the others. Four models, two contextual (S-SEBI and a modified triangle method, named VIT) and two single-pixel (TSEB, SEBS) are applied over one growing season (December-May) for a 4 km × 4 km irrigated agricultural area in the semi-arid northern Mexico. Their performance, both at local and spatial standpoints, are compared relatively to energy balance data acquired at seven locations within the area, as well as an uncalibrated soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model forced with local in situ data including observed irrigation and rainfall amounts. Stress levels are not always well retrieved by most models, but S-SEBI as well as TSEB, although slightly biased, show good performance. The drop in model performance is observed for all models when vegetation is senescent, mostly due to a poor partitioning both between turbulent fluxes and between the soil/plant components of the latent heat flux and the available energy. As expected, contextual methods perform well when contrasted soil moisture and vegetation conditions are encountered in the same image (therefore, especially in spring and early summer) while they tend to exaggerate the spread in water status in more homogeneous conditions (especially in winter). Surface energy balance models run with available remotely sensed products prove to be nearly as accurate as the uncalibrated SVAT model forced with in situ data. © Author(s) 2014.


Naji S.,Mohammed V University | Naji S.,Ibb University | Belhaj A.,Sultan Moulay Slimane University | Labrim H.,Center National Of Lenergie | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2014

Inspired by Lie symmetries, we study the electronic and magnetic properties of cobalt (Co) and nickel (Ni) adatom adsorption on the graphene material using density functional theory calculations. The system we consider here consists of a static single layer of graphene interacting with transition-metal (TM) atoms. This system shows a nice geometrical shape having a double hexagonal structure appearing in the G2 Lie algebra. This structure is associated with 25% concentration corresponding to a coverage of 0.666 monolayers placed at H sites. This new symmetry forces the derived Co material to behave like a ferromagnetic metal with a strong spin polarization. However, the derived Ni material remains a nonmagnetic metal. For the Co case, we show that the magnetic mechanism responsible for such behavior is the interaction between the Co atoms. In fact, there are two interaction types. The first one is associated with the direct interaction between the Co atoms, while the second one corresponds to the indirect interaction via the carbon atoms. Using Monte Carlo simulation, the Curie temperature for the Co material is estimated to be around 438 K. This value could be explored in nanomagnetic applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Mabit L.,International Atomic Energy Agency | Benmansour M.,Center National Of Lenergie | Abril J.M.,University of Seville | Walling D.E.,University of Exeter | And 7 more authors.
Earth-Science Reviews | Year: 2014

Increasing anthropogenic pressures coupled with climate change impacts on natural resources have promoted a quest for innovative tracing techniques for understanding soil redistribution processes and assessing the environmental status of soil resources. Among the different existing tracers, the fallout component of the radioisotope lead-210, also termed unsupported or excess lead-210 (210Pbex) when referring to its presence in soil or sediment, arguably offers the broadest potential for environmental applications, due to its origin and relatively long half-life. For more than five decades, 210Pbex has been widely used for dating sediments, to investigate sedimentation processes and, since the 1990s, to provide information on the magnitude of soil and sediment redistribution.The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive evaluation and discussion of the various applications of 210Pbex as a tracer in terrestrial and aquatic environments, with particular emphasis on catchment sediment budget investigations. This paper summarizes the state-of-the-art related to the use of this tracer, the main assumptions, the requirements (including the need for accurate analytical measurements and for parallel validation), and the limitations which must be recognised when using this fallout radionuclide as a soil and sediment tracer. Lessons learned and current and future research needs in the environmental and radiochronological application of 210Pbex are also presented and discussed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Belhaj A.,Center National Of Lenergie | Segui A.,University of Zaragoza
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2010

Using D-brane configurations on the K3 surface, we give six-dimensional type IIA stringy realizations of the Quantum Hall Effect (QHE) in 1+2 dimensions. Based on the vertical and horizontal lines of the K3 Hodge diamond, we engineer two different stringy realizations. The vertical line presents a realization in terms of D2 and D6-branes wrapping the K3 surface. The horizontal one is associated with hierarchical stringy descriptions obtained from a quiver gauge theory living on a stack of D4-branes wrapping intersecting 2-spheres embedded in the K3 surface with deformed singularities. These geometries are classified by three kinds of the Kac-Moody algebras: ordinary, i.e. finite dimensional, affine and indefinite. We find that no stringy QHE in 1+2 dimensions can occur in the quiver gauge theory living on intersecting 2-spheres arranged as affine Dynkin diagrams. Stringy realizations of QHE can be done only for the finite and indefinite geometries. In particular, the finite Lie algebras give models with fractional filling fractions, while the indefinite ones classify models with negative filling fractions which can be associated with the physics of holes in the graphene. © 2010.

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