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Leconet W.,La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology | Leconet W.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Petit P.,Center National Of La Recherche Scientifique Formation Of Recherche En Evolution 3400 | Peraldi-Roux S.,Center National Of La Recherche Scientifique Formation Of Recherche En Evolution 3400 | Bresson D.,La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology
Molecular Therapy | Year: 2012

The development of small interfering RNA (siRNA) for the treatment of human disorders has been often hampered by their low transfection efficiency in vivo. In order to overcome this major drawback, various in vivo siRNA transfection methods have been developed. However, their capacity to transfect immune or insulin-producing β-cells within the pancreas for the treatment of autoimmune diabetes remains undetermined. We found that lipid- or polyethylenimine-based delivery agents were efficient to address siRNA molecules within pancreas-associated antigen-presenting cells (APCs) (but not β-cells) and particularly a CD11b cell population comprising both CD11b CD11c neg macrophages and CD11b CD11c endritic cells. However, the route of administration and the carrier composition greatly affected the transfection efficacy. Therapeutically, we showed that early (starting at 6-week-old) short-course treatment with lipid/Alox15-specific siRNA complex promoted long-term protection from type 1 diabetes (T1D) in wild-type (WT) nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. Alox15 downregulation in pancreas-associated CD11b cells significantly upregulated a variety of costimulatory molecules and particularly the programmed death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway involved in tolerance induction. Concomitantly, we found that regulatory T cells were increased in the pancreas of lipid/Alox15 siRNA-treated NOD mice. Collectively, our data provide new insights into the development of siRNA-based therapeutics for T1D. © The American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy. Source

Chentouf M.,Center National Of La Recherche Scientifique Formation Of Recherche En Evolution 3400 | Dubois G.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Jahannaut C.,Center National Of La Recherche Scientifique Formation Of Recherche En Evolution 3400 | Castex F.,Center National Of La Recherche Scientifique Formation Of Recherche En Evolution 3400 | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Inappropriate food intake-related obesity and more importantly, visceral adiposity, are major risk factors for the onset of type 2 diabetes. Evidence is emerging that nutriment-induced β-cell dysfunction could be related to indirect induction of a state of low grade inflammation. Our aim was to study whether hyperphagia associated obesity could promote an inflammatory response in pancreatic islets leading to ß-cell dysfunction. In the hyperphagic obese insulin resistant male Zucker rat, we measured the level of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and estimated their production as well as the expression of their receptors in pancreatic tissue and β-cells. Our main findings concern intra-islet pro-inflammatory cytokines from fa/fa rats: IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα expressions were increased; IL-1R1 was also over-expressed with a cellular redistribution also observed for IL-6R. To get insight into the mechanisms involved in phenotypic alterations, abArrays were used to determine the expression profile of proteins implicated in different membrane receptors signaling, apoptosis and cell cycle pathways. Despite JNK overexpression, cell viability was unaffected probably because of decreases in cleaved caspase3 as well as in SMAC/DIABLO and APP, involved in the induction and amplification of apoptosis. Concerning β-cell proliferation, decreases in important cell cycle regulators (Cyclin D1, p35) and increased expression of SMAD4 probably contribute to counteract and restrain hyperplasia in fa/fa rat islets. Finally and probably as a result of IL-1β and IL-1R1 increased expressions with sub-cellular redistribution of the receptor, islets from fa/fa rats were found more sensitive to both stimulating and inhibitory concentrations of the cytokine; this confers some physiopathological relevance to a possible autocrine regulation of β-cell function by IL-1β. These results support the hypothesis that pancreatic islets from prediabetic fa/fa rats undergo an inflammatory process. That the latter could contribute to β-cell hyperactivity/proliferation and possibly lead to progressive β-cell failure in these animals, deserves further investigations. © 2011 Chentouf et al. Source

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