Center National en Electrochimie et en Technologies Environnementales

Shawinigan, Canada

Center National en Electrochimie et en Technologies Environnementales

Shawinigan, Canada
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Chen X.Y.,Laval University | Chen X.Y.,Center National en Electrochimie et en Technologies Environnementales | Vinh-Thang H.,Laval University | Rodrigue D.,Laval University | Kaliaguine S.,Laval University
RSC Advances | Year: 2014

Macrovoid structured mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) composed of nano-size (200 nm) silica particles and co-polyimide were prepared from 6FDA-ODA-DAM (6FDA = 4,4′-(hexafluoroiso-propylidene)diphthalic anhydride; ODA = 4,4′-oxidianiline; DAM = 1,3,5-trimethyl-2,6-phenylenediamine) with different proportions (1:1 and 1:4) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) via the sol-gel method. The separation performance of MMMs with 6FDA-ODA-DAM treated at high temperature (450 °C) was excellent for CO2/CH4 separation (for 6FOD-ODA-DAM (1:1): CO2 permeability ∼265 Barrer and CO2/CH4 selectivity ∼32; for 6FOD-ODA-DAM (1:4): CO2 permeability ∼302 Barrer and CO2/CH4 selectivity ∼25). Remarkably, the best membrane could resist pressure up to 600 psi without any loss of permselectivity. The CO2/CH4 separation performance of a series of silica-6FDA-ODA-DAM(11) MMMs with different SiO2 loadings is theoretically predicted using a modified Maxwell model where both gas permeability and macrovoid shape factor are simultaneously considered as adjustable parameters. Applying the optimized values, the modified Maxwell model predictions were in excellent agreement with experimental permeability data (less than 2% deviation). © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


PubMed | University of Carthage, National Institute of Research and Physical and Chemical Analysis INRAP, Center National en Electrochimie et en Technologies Environnementales and Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal
Type: | Journal: Bioresource technology | Year: 2015

The feasibility of using hardwood hemicellulosic pre-hydrolysate recovered from a dissolving pulping process for Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation has been investigated. Dilutions and detoxification methods based on flocculation and nanofiltration were tested to determine the inhibitory concentration of phenolic compounds and to evaluate the efficiency of inhibitors removal on fermentation. Flocculation carried out with ferric sulfate was the most effective method for removal of phenolics (56%) and acetic acid (80%). The impact on fermentation was significant, with an ABE production of 6.40 g/L and 4.25 g/L when using flocculation or combined nanofiltration/flocculation respectively, as compared to a non-significant production for the untreated hydrolysate. By decreasing the toxicity effect of inhibitors, this study reports for the first time that the use of these techniques is efficient to increase the inhibitory concentration threshold of phenols, from 0.3g/L in untreated hydrolysate, to 1.1g/L in flocculated and in nanofiltrated and flocculated hydrolysates.


Pachapur V.L.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Kutty P.,National Institute of Technology Warangal | Brar S.K.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Ramirez A.A.,Center National en Electrochimie et en Technologies Environnementales
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2016

Anaerobic digestion using mixed-culture with broader choice of pretreatments for hydrogen (H2) production was investigated. Pretreatment of wastewater sludge by five methods, such as heat, acid, base, microwave and chloroform was conducted using crude glycerol (CG) as substrate. Results for heat treatment (100 °C for 15 min) showed the highest H2 production across the pretreatment methods with 15.18 ± 0.26 mmol/L of medium at 30 °C in absence of complex media and nutrient solution. The heat-pretreated inoculum eliminated H2 consuming bacteria and produced twice as much as H2 as compared to other pretreatment methods. The fermentation conditions, such as CG concentration (1.23 to 24 g/L), percentage of inoculum size (InS) (1.23% to 24% v/v) along with initial pH (2.98 to 8.02) was tested using central composite design (CCD) with H2 production as response parameter. The maximum H2 production of 29.43 ± 0.71 mmol/L obtained at optimum conditions of 20 g/L CG, 20% InS and pH 7. Symbiotic correlation of pH over CG and InS had a significant (p-value: 0.0011) contribution to H2 production. The mixed-culture possessed better natural acclimatization activity for degrading CG, at substrate inhibition concentration and provided efficient inoculum conditions in comparison to mono- and co-culture systems. The heat pretreatment step used across mixed-culture system is simple, cheap and industrially applicable in comparison to mono-/co-culture systems for H2 production. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


PubMed | National Institute of Technology Warangal, Center National en Electrochimie et en Technologies Environnementales and INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of molecular sciences | Year: 2016

Anaerobic digestion using mixed-culture with broader choice of pretreatments for hydrogen (H) production was investigated. Pretreatment of wastewater sludge by five methods, such as heat, acid, base, microwave and chloroform was conducted using crude glycerol (CG) as substrate. Results for heat treatment (100 C for 15 min) showed the highest H production across the pretreatment methods with 15.18 0.26 mmol/L of medium at 30 C in absence of complex media and nutrient solution. The heat-pretreated inoculum eliminated H consuming bacteria and produced twice as much as H as compared to other pretreatment methods. The fermentation conditions, such as CG concentration (1.23 to 24 g/L), percentage of inoculum size (InS) (1.23% to 24% v/v) along with initial pH (2.98 to 8.02) was tested using central composite design (CCD) with H production as response parameter. The maximum H production of 29.43 0.71 mmol/L obtained at optimum conditions of 20 g/L CG, 20% InS and pH 7. Symbiotic correlation of pH over CG and InS had a significant (p-value: 0.0011) contribution to H production. The mixed-culture possessed better natural acclimatization activity for degrading CG, at substrate inhibition concentration and provided efficient inoculum conditions in comparison to mono- and co-culture systems. The heat pretreatment step used across mixed-culture system is simple, cheap and industrially applicable in comparison to mono-/co-culture systems for H production.


Ajao O.,Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal | Le Hir M.,Aix - Marseille University | Rahni M.,Center National en Electrochimie et en Technologies Environnementales | Marinova M.,Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal | And 2 more authors.
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2015

The prehydrolysate stream from a Kraft dissolving pulp mill can be valorized by fermentation of the hemicellulosic sugars into biofuels or bioproducts, such as ethanol or butanol, instead of the typical practice of combustion to produce energy. An obstacle facing the use of Kraft hemicelluloses prehydrolysate for biofuels production is the low sugar concentration and the presence of fermentation inhibitors that include organic acids, furans and phenolic compounds. A precondition to ensure the survival of the fermentation microorganisms and to have high fermentation yields is to remove the inhibitors. Concentration of the prehydrolysate is also necessary to reduce the size of the processing equipment and decrease the energy cost. The purpose of this study was to develop a strategy for the concentration and detoxification of hemicelluloses prehydrolysate prior to its conversion into biofuels. Experiments were conducted to screen and select suitable organic membranes among 7 samples of reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and ultrafiltration membranes. Three membranes (Dow NF270, Trisep TS40, and Trisep XN45) showed the highest sugar retentions relative to inhibitors removal. They were however not efficient for the removal of the phenolic compounds. It was also found that flocculation with ferric sulfate as coagulant could be utilized as a secondary detoxification step that can be combined with nanofiltration. The optimization of the flocculation step with a jar test showed that the highest phenolics removal (∼80%) can be obtained when the ratio of ferric ions to phenols is 1 g/g, and the pH is between 6.5 and 7.5. A new process concept for the detoxification and concentration has been developed based on these experimental results. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Lopez-Gonzalez D.,CNRS Research on Catalysis and Environment in Lyon | Avalos-Ramirez A.,Center National en Electrochimie et en Technologies Environnementales | Giroir-Fendler A.,CNRS Research on Catalysis and Environment in Lyon | Godbout S.,Institute Of Recherche Et Of Developpement En Agroenvironnement | And 3 more authors.
Energy | Year: 2015

Combustion characteristics of two woody crops (BP (black spruce and Pinus banksiana mixtures) and W (willow)) and three herbaceous non-perennial energy crops (CR (common reed), RP (reed phalaris) and S (switchgrass)) were studied by means of TGA (thermogravimetric analysis) and DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) coupled with MS (mass spectrometry). The combustion process of these biomasses is divided into two stages: devolatilization and char oxidation. TGA data showed that sample BP had the best ignition characteristics (burnout temperature of 507 °C). However, DSC analysis demonstrated that samples W and RP released a higher amount of combustion heat (>8 kJ/g). Kinetics was evaluated assuming single separate reactions for each combustion stage using PMSM (pseudo multi-component separate-stage models). The process was successfully modeled obtaining the maximum error of ±3.35% for the sample S. CO, CO2 and H2O were the main components obtained during the combustion process. Nitrogen compounds (NO, NO2 and HCN) were found in higher proportions that sulfur compounds (SO and SO2). Nitrogen compounds were released in both combustion stages, whereas sulfur compounds evolved mainly in the low temperature range. Other pollutants were found in lower concentrations (CH3Cl and C6H6). © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Fernandez-Lopez M.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Puig-Gamero M.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Lopez-Gonzalez D.,CNRS Research on Catalysis and Environment in Lyon | Avalos-Ramirez A.,Center National en Electrochimie et en Technologies Environnementales | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2015

The valorization of three different manure samples via pyrolysis and combustion processes was evaluated. Dairy manure (sample Pre) was biologically pretreated by anaerobic digestion (sample Dig R) whereas swine manure (sample SW) was pretreated by a biodrying process. Thermal behavior of manure samples were studied by means of thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry (TGA-MS). These processes could be divided into four general stages: dehydration, devolatilization, char transformation (oxidation for combustion) and inorganic matter decomposition. The main differences observed among the samples were attributed to their different composition and pretreatment. The economic feasibility, energetic and environmental impacts of pyrolysis and combustion technologies for dairy samples were carried out by means of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Four different scenarios were analyzed. The economic feasibility of the pyrolysis process was demonstrated, being sample Dig R the best environmental option. However, the combustion of sample Pre was the best energetic option. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | University of Castilla - La Mancha, Center National en Electrochimie et en Technologies Environnementales and CNRS Research on Catalysis and Environment in Lyon
Type: | Journal: Bioresource technology | Year: 2015

The valorization of three different manure samples via pyrolysis and combustion processes was evaluated. Dairy manure (sample Pre) was biologically pretreated by anaerobic digestion (sample Dig R) whereas swine manure (sample SW) was pretreated by a biodrying process. Thermal behavior of manure samples were studied by means of thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry (TGA-MS). These processes could be divided into four general stages: dehydration, devolatilization, char transformation (oxidation for combustion) and inorganic matter decomposition. The main differences observed among the samples were attributed to their different composition and pretreatment. The economic feasibility, energetic and environmental impacts of pyrolysis and combustion technologies for dairy samples were carried out by means of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Four different scenarios were analyzed. The economic feasibility of the pyrolysis process was demonstrated, being sample Dig R the best environmental option. However, the combustion of sample Pre was the best energetic option.


PubMed | University of Castilla - La Mancha, Institute Of Recherche Et Of Developpement En Agroenvironnement, Center National en Electrochimie et en Technologies Environnementales and INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique
Type: | Journal: Waste management (New York, N.Y.) | Year: 2015

This study aims to underline the huge potential in Canada of adding value to cardboard and compost as a renewable fuel with a low ecological footprint. The slow pyrolysis process of lined cardboard and compost blend was investigated. Thermal behavior was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry (TGA-MS). The thermal profiles are presented in the form of TGA/DTG curves. With a constant heating rate of 10 C/min, two parameters, temperature and time were varied. Cardboard decomposition occurred mostly between 203 C and 436 C, where 77% of the sample weight was decomposed. Compost blend decomposition occurred mostly between 209 C and 373 C, with 23% of weight. The principal gaseous products that evolved during the pyrolysis were H2O, CO and CO2. As a result, slow pyrolysis led to the formation of biochar. High yield of biochar from cardboard was found at 250 C for a duration of 60 min (87.5%) while the biochar yield from the compost blend was maintained constant at about 31%. Finally, kinetic parameters and a statistical analysis for the pyrolysis process of the cardboard and compost samples have been investigated. Both materials showed a favorable thermochemical behavior. However, unlike cardboard, compost pyrolysis does not seem a promising process because of the low superior calorific and biochar values.


Ajao O.,Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal | Rahni M.,Center National en Electrochimie et en Technologies Environnementales | Marinova M.,Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal | Chadjaa H.,Center National en Electrochimie et en Technologies Environnementales | Savadogo O.,Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2015

The prehydrolysate generated in the Kraft pulping process prior to cooking of wood chips can be converted into value added products such as furfural, ethanol or xylitol. To make a furfural biorefinery economically feasible, it is proposed to reduce the energy use and process equipment size by concentrating the prehydrolysate stream prior to conversion. This work demonstrates the feasibility of simultaneously concentrating the hemicellulosic sugars and acetic acid in the prehydrolysate solution from a Kraft dissolving pulp mill by nanofiltration membrane. The performances of 6 commercial organic membranes made of polyamide, cellulose acetate and polypiperazine amide polymers and of different Molecular Weights Cut Off (MWCO) were evaluated. Special attention was directed to high retention of sugars, acetic acid and furfural. A membrane with a MWCO of about 200. Da and total sugars retention of 99% was selected. Cleaning of the membrane using NaOH returned the permeate flux up to 75% of the pure water flux level prior to use. A response surface model correlating the permeate flux to the temperature and pressure of the system has been developed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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