Entity

Time filter

Source Type


Plard F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Gaillard J.-M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Coulson T.,University of Oxford | Hewison A.J.M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 4 more authors.
Ecography | Year: 2014

In seasonal environments, parturition of most vertebrates generally occurs within a short time-window each year. This synchrony is generally interpreted as being adaptive, as early born young survive better over the critical season than late born young. Among large herbivores, the factors involved in driving among- and within-individual variation in parturition date are poorly understood. We explored this question by analyzing the relative importance of attributes linked to female quality (longevity, median adult body mass and cohort), time-dependent attributes linked to female condition (reproductive success the previous year, relative annual body mass and offspring cohort (year)), and age in shaping observed variation in parturition date of roe deer. A measure of quality combining the effects of female longevity and median adult body mass accounted for 11% of the observed among-individual variation in parturition date. Females of 2 yr old give birth 5 d later than older females. Our study demonstrates that high quality (heavy and long-lived) females give birth earlier than low quality females. Temporally variable attributes linked to female condition, such as reproductive success in the previous year and relative annual body mass, had no detectable influence on parturition date. We conclude that parturition date, a crucial determinant of reproductive success, is shaped by attributes linked to female quality rather than by time-dependent attributes linked to female condition in income breeders (individuals that rely on current resource intake rather than on accumulated body reserves to offset the increased energy requirements due to reproduction) such as roe deer. © 2013 The Authors. Source


Plard F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Gaillard J.-M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Coulson T.,University of Oxford | Hewison A.J.M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 3 more authors.
PLoS Biology | Year: 2014

Marked impacts of climate change on biodiversity have frequently been demonstrated, including temperature-related shifts in phenology and life-history traits. One potential major impact of climate change is the modification of synchronization between the phenology of different trophic levels. High phenotypic plasticity in laying date has allowed many bird species to track the increasingly early springs resulting from recent environmental change, but although changes in the timing of reproduction have been well studied in birds, these questions have only recently been addressed in mammals. To track peak resource availability, large herbivores like roe deer, with a widespread distribution across Europe, should also modify their life-history schedule in response to changes in vegetation phenology over time. In this study, we analysed the influence of climate change on the timing of roe deer births and the consequences for population demography and individual fitness. Our study provides a rare quantification of the demographic costs associated with the failure of a species to modify its phenology in response to a changing world. Given these fitness costs, the lack of response of roe deer birth dates to match the increasingly earlier onset of spring is in stark contrast with the marked phenotypic responses to climate change reported in many other mammals. We suggest that the lack of phenotypic plasticity in birth timing in roe deer is linked to its inability to track environmental cues of variation in resource availability for the timing of parturition. © 2014 Plard et al. Source


Plard F.,University of Lyon | Plard F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Gaillard J.-M.,University of Lyon | Bonenfant C.,University of Lyon | And 6 more authors.
Biology Letters | Year: 2013

Births are highly synchronized among females in many mammal populations in temperate areas. Although laying date for a given female is also repeatable within populations of birds, limited evidence suggests low repeatability of parturition date for individual females in mammals, and between-population variability in repeatability has never, to our knowledge, been assessed. We quantified the repeatability of parturition date for individual females in five populations of roe deer, which we found to vary between 0.54 and 0.93. Each year, some females gave birth consistently earlier in the year, whereas others gave birth consistently later. In addition, all females followed the same lifetime trajectory for parturition date, giving birth progressively earlier as they aged. Giving birth early should allow mothers to increase offspring survival, although few females managed to do so. The marked repeatability of parturition date in roe deer females is the highest ever reported for a mammal, suggesting low phenotypic plasticity in this trait. © 2012 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. Source


Plard F.,University of Lyon | Bonenfant C.,University of Lyon | Delorme D.,Center National Detudes Et Of Recherches Appliquees Cervides Sangliers | Gaillard J.M.,University of Lyon
Theoretical Population Biology | Year: 2012

The relative role of dynamic and fixed heterogeneity in shaping the individual heterogeneity observed in most life-history traits remains difficult to quantify. In a recent work, . Tuljapurkar etal. (2009) suggested modeling individual heterogeneity in lifetime reproductive success by a null model building reproductive trajectories from a first-order Markov chain. According to this model, among-individual differences in reproductive trajectories would be generated by the stochastic transitions among reproductive states (such as breeder and non-breeder) due to dynamic heterogeneity. In this work, we analyze the individual variation in three reproductive metrics (reproductive status, fecundity, and reproductive success) in two populations of roe deer intensively monitored using Tuljapurkar etal. (2009)'s dynamic model. Moreover, we challenge the Tuljapurkar model previously used as a biological null model to test whether the observed distribution of reproductive success over the lifetime was generated by a stochastic process by modifying two steps of the previous model to build a full stochastic model. We show that a distribution generated by the full dynamic model proposed by Tuljapurkar etal. (2009) can be consistently interpreted as only generated from a stochastic biological process provided that the probabilities of transition among reproductive states used are independent of the current reproductive state and that the positive co-variation that usually occurs between survival and reproduction among individuals is removed. Only the reproductive status of roe deer females could be restricted to a stochastic process described by the full stochastic model, probably because most females (>90%) were breeders in a given year. The fecundity of roe deer females could not be adequately described by the full dynamic and full stochastic model, and the observed distribution of female reproductive success differed from the one generated by a full dynamic model in which each individual reproductive trajectory was independent of the individual lifespan (second step of the full dynamic model changed). While there was clear evidence that dynamic heterogeneity occurred and accounted for a large part of the observed among-individual variation in reproductive trajectories of roe deer females, a stochastic process did not provide a suitable model for all reproductive metrics. Consequently, models including additional fixed and dynamic traits need to be built in order to separate the relative role of fixed and dynamic heterogeneities in generating reproductive trajectories. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Bonnot N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Gaillard J.-M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Coulon A.,CNRS Mechanical Adaptation and Evolution | Galan M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Data on spatial genetic patterns may provide information about the ecological and behavioural mechanisms underlying population structure. Indeed, social organization and dispersal patterns of species may be reflected by the pattern of genetic structure within a population. Methodology/Principal Findings: We investigated the fine-scale spatial genetic structure of a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) population in Trois-Fontaines (France) using 12 microsatellite loci. The roe deer is weakly polygynous and highly sedentary, and can form matrilineal clans. We show that relatedness among individuals was negatively correlated with geographic distance, indicating that spatially proximate individuals are also genetically close. More unusually for a large mammalian herbivore, the link between relatedness and distance did not differ between the sexes, which is consistent with the lack of sex-biased dispersal and the weakly polygynous mating system of roe deer. Conclusions/Significance: Our results contrast with previous reports on highly polygynous species with male-biased dispersal, such as red deer, where local genetic structure was detected in females only. This divergence between species highlights the importance of socio-spatial organization in determining local genetic structure of vertebrate populations. © 2010 Bonnot et al. Source

Discover hidden collaborations