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Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

Lefevre T.,IRD Montpellier | Vantaux A.,IRD Montpellier | Dabire K.R.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante | Dabire K.R.,Center Muraz | And 4 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens

Understanding how mosquito vectors and malaria parasites interact is of fundamental interest, and it also offers novel perspectives for disease control. Both the genetic and environmental contexts are known to affect the ability of mosquitoes to support malaria development and transmission, i.e., vector competence. Although the role of environment has long been recognized, much work has focused on host and parasite genetic effects. However, the last few years have seen a surge of studies revealing a great diversity of ways in which non-genetic factors can interfere with mosquito-Plasmodium interactions. Here, we review the current evidence for such environmentally mediated effects, including ambient temperature, mosquito diet, microbial gut flora, and infection history, and we identify additional factors previously overlooked in mosquito-Plasmodium interactions. We also discuss epidemiological implications, and the evolutionary consequences for vector immunity and parasite transmission strategies. Finally, we propose directions for further research and argue that an improved knowledge of non-genetic influences on mosquito-Plasmodium interactions could aid in implementing conventional malaria control measures and contribute to the design of novel strategies. © 2013 Lefèvre et al. Source

Maheu-Giroux M.,Harvard University | Filippi V.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Samadoulougou S.,Catholic University of Louvain | Castro M.C.,Harvard University | And 4 more authors.
The Lancet Global Health

Background: Vaginal fistula is a serious medical disorder characterised by an abnormal opening between the vagina and the bladder or rectum, which results in continuous leakage of urine or stool. The burden of this disorder in sub-Saharan Africa is uncertain. We estimated the lifetime and point prevalence of symptoms of vaginal fistula in this region using national household surveys based on self-report of symptoms. Methods: We considered all Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicators Cluster Surveys (MICS) from sub-Saharan Africa and included data for women of reproductive age (15-49 years). We estimated lifetime prevalence and point prevalence of vaginal fistula with use of Bayesian hierarchical meta-analysis. Findings: We included 19 surveys in our analysis, including 262 100 respondents. Lifetime prevalence was 3·0 cases (95% credible interval 1·3-5·5) per 1000 women of reproductive age. After imputation of missing data, point prevalence was 1·0 case (0·3-2·4) per 1000 women of reproductive age. Ethiopia had the largest number of women who presently have symptoms of vaginal fistula. Interpretation: This study is the first to estimate the burden of vaginal fistula in 19 sub-Saharan Africa countries using nationally representative survey data. Point prevalence was slightly lower than previously estimated but these earlier estimates are within the prevalence's credible intervals. Although vaginal fistula is relatively rare, it is still too common in sub-Saharan Africa. Funding: None. © 2015 Maheu-Giroux et al. Open access article published under the terms of CC BY. Source

Some D.T.,Societe dEtudes et de Recherche en Sante Publique SERSAP | Sombie I.,West African Health Organization WAHO | Meda N.,Center Muraz
Reproductive Health

Background: Delay in decision-making to use skilled care during pregnancy and childbirth is an important factor for maternal death in many developing countries. This paper examines how decisions for maternal care are made in two rural communities in Burkina Faso. Methods. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and individual interviews (IDIs)) were used to collect information with 30 women in Ouargaye and Diapaga medical districts. All interviews were tape recorded and analyzed using QSR Nvivo 2.0. Results: Decision-making for use of obstetric care in the family follows the logic of the family's management. Husbands, brothers-in-law and parents-in-law make the decision about whether to use a health facility for antenatal care or for delivery. In general, decision-makers are those who can pay, including the woman herself. Payment of care is the responsibility of men, according to women interviewed, because of their social role and status. Conclusions: To increase use of health facilities in Ouargaye and Diapaga, the empowerment of women could be helpful as well as exemption of fees or cost sharing for care. © 2013 Somé et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2012.2.3.2-4 | Award Amount: 3.94M | Year: 2012

Pregnant women are very susceptible to malaria infection and Malaria in Pregnancy (MiP) is a major cause of maternal anaemia and low birth weight (LBW) that leads to infant mortality, poor growth and development. In low transmission areas, malaria can become severe, resulting in maternal and foetal death. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) MiP is responsible for 814% of LBW, 38% of infant deaths, higher risk of post-partum haemorrhage and >10,000 maternal deaths/year. Prevention like, bed nets and intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp/SP), is cheap and cost-effective, but coverage achieved by these interventions is low. Therefore, we propose Community Health Workers (CHW) to implement scheduled intermittent screening at community level with RDT of pregnant women and if positive treat with anti-malarials (SST). In addition CHWs will encourage pregnant women to attend antenatal clinics (ANC) for other pregnancy-targeted interventions and IPTp/SP, thereby improving its coverage. This approach combines existing IPTp/SP with SST at village level as an extension of Home based management of malaria (HMM). This low cost (based on existing practice) and simple (diagnosis by RDTs) intervention improves maternal and newborn health and capitalise on an already existing intervention (HMM). The aim of this proposal is to determine the added value (as compared to IPTp/SP alone implemented in health facilities) of community SST of pregnant women implemented through the CHW involved in HMM. Objectives are: 1) Identify bottlenecks for implementation by CHW involved in HMM of SST; 2) determine impact of introducing SST in pregnancy on quality of HMM; 3) determine the impact of SST on ANC attendance and IPTp/SP coverage; 4) determine the impact of SST on LBW, anaemia and placenta malaria; 5) estimate cost-effectiveness of SST as compared to IPTp/SP alone and 6) formulate recommendations for possible implementation of the intervention.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.3.2-3 | Award Amount: 3.74M | Year: 2008

This project aims to assess specific P. falciparum genetic markers for resistance to artemisinin-based combinations (ACT), and to develop innovative, rapid and simple diagnostics for malaria and these markers. Specific objectives are: To develop and evaluate in disease endemic countries accurate low-tech molecular diagnostic tests. To identify alleles of candidate resistance genes associated with increased transmission success of P. falciparum after ACT treatment in completed clinical trials (endpoints at gametocyte or infected mosquito level). To conduct ACT treatment trials with transmission endpoints, and measure impact of resistance-associated alleles on gametocyte emergence, and on the infectiousness of gametocyte-positive or randomly-selected treated individuals to Anopheles mosquitoes. To measure ACT efficacy using in vivo treatment trials, and in vitro drug sensitivity testing of natural parasite isolates. The impact of candidate resistance markers will be measured in patients with treatment failure, and in parasites with reduced in vitro sensitivity. To develop new low-tech diagnostic tools able to demonstrate the presence of mutations conferring drug resistance in the Plasmodium population, particularly those markers validated by the project. To investigate commercial value aspects of developed tests. The project will move our knowledge of ACT resistance forward in 2 complementary ways: 1) In order to identify and validate genetic markers for ACT resistance, we will use our unprecedented access to parasites isolated both from ACT-treated individuals and from mosquitoes fed on blood from ACT-treated individuals. 2) we will develop and validate simple tests in new formats for detection of these and other markers of relevance, and for rapid detection of persisting parasites in treated patients. The work is a balanced mix of clinical field work, laboratory research and (commercial) test development and linked to EU initiative EDCTP.

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