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Robisson B.,Center Microelectronique Of Provence | Robisson B.,French Atomic Energy Commission | Bouder H.L.,Center Microelectronique Of Provence | Bouder H.L.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP
Journal of Cryptographic Engineering | Year: 2016

Physical attacks on cryptographic circuits were first identified in the late 1990s. These types of attacks, which are still considered very powerful, are generally classified into two main categories: “fault attacks” and “side-channel attacks.” To secure circuits against such attacks, it is crucial to develop appropriate methods and tools that enable accurate estimates of the protection mechanism’s effectiveness. Numerous studies have described such methods and tools but, to the best of our knowledge, these previous investigations have considered side-channel attacks or fault attacks but not the combination of the two types. The present article proposes a combined investigation of both main types of attack by describing them with the same terminology and the same algorithm. This approach is made possible by introducing the concept of “physical functions” as an extension of the concept of “leakage functions,” which are widely used in the side-channel community. The paper represents a first step toward applying the strong theoretical background developed for side-channel attacks to the investigation of fault attacks. Besides, the proposed approach could potentially make it easier to combine side-channel attacks with fault attacks, which could certainly facilitate the discovery of new attack paths. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Drahi E.,Center Microelectronique Of Provence | Gupta A.,Center Microelectronique Of Provence | Blayac S.,Center Microelectronique Of Provence | Saunier S.,Science des Materiaux et des Structures | Benaben P.,Center Microelectronique Of Provence
Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials Science | Year: 2014

Nanostructured silicon-based materials are good candidates for thermoelectric (TE) devices due to their low thermal conductivity, customizable electrical conductivity, and reduced cost. Generally, nanostructured TE bulk materials are obtained through compaction and sintering at high temperature (>1000 C) of silicon nanoparticles (NPs). In order to introduce TE generators in flexible electronic devices, development of thin film TE is needed. Inkjet-printing of silicon NPs-based ink is an interesting technology for this targeted application due to its low cost and additive process. This paper presents the implementation of inkjet-printing of a silicon NPs-based ink toward the fabrication of TE material on flexible substrate and the development of a characterization method for this material. After printing, recovering of electrical properties through sintering is mandatory. Nevertheless, special care must be taken in order to keep thermal conductivity low and reduce the annealing temperature to allow the use of flexible substrates. The functional properties: electrical and thermal (measured by Raman spectroscopy), are studied as a function of the annealing process. Two types of annealing: rapid thermal annealing and microwave annealing, are investigated as well as two atmospheres: inert (N2) and reducing (N2-H2 5%). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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