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Ayala D.,IRD Montpellier | Ayala D.,Center International Of Recherches Medicales Of Franceville | Ullastres A.,University Pompeu Fabra | Gonzalez J.,University Pompeu Fabra
Frontiers in Genetics

Chromosomal inversions have been repeatedly involved in local adaptation in a large number of animals and plants. The ecological and behavioral plasticity of Anopheles species-human malaria vectors-is mirrored by high amounts of polymorphic inversions. The adaptive significance of chromosomal inversions has been consistently attested by strong and significant correlations between their frequencies and a number of phenotypic traits. Here, we provide an extensive literature review of the different adaptive traits associated with chromosomal inversions in the genus Anopheles. Traits having important consequences for the success of present and future vector control measures, such as insecticide resistance and behavioral changes, are discussed. © 2014 Ayala, Ullastres and González. Source

Kamgang B.,Institute Pasteur Of Bangui | Ngoagouni C.,Institute Pasteur Of Bangui | Manirakiza A.,Institute Pasteur Of Bangui | Nakoune E.,Institute Pasteur Of Bangui | And 3 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

The invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) was first reported in central Africa in 2000, in Cameroon, with the indigenous mosquito species Ae. aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Today, this invasive species is present in almost all countries of the region, including the Central African Republic (CAR), where it was first recorded in 2009. As invasive species of mosquitoes can affect the distribution of native species, resulting in new patterns of vectors and concomitant risk for disease, we undertook a comparative study early and late in the wet season in the capital and the main cities of CAR to document infestation and the ecological preferences of the two species. In addition, we determined the probable geographical origin of invasive populations of Ae. albopictus with two mitochondrial DNA genes, COI and ND5. Analysis revealed that Ae. aegypti was more abundant earlier in the wet season and Ae. albopictus in the late wet season. Used tyres were the most heavily colonized productive larval habitats for both species in both seasons. The invasive species Ae. albopictus predominated over the resident species at all sites in which the two species were sympatric. Mitochondrial DNA analysis revealed broad low genetic diversity, confirming recent introduction of Ae. albopictus in CAR. Phylogeographical analysis based on COI polymorphism indicated that the Ae. albopictus haplotype in the CAR population segregated into two lineages, suggesting multiple sources of Ae. albopictus. These data may have important implications for vector control strategies in central Africa. © 2013 Kamgang et al. Source

Rougeron V.,Center International Of Recherches Medicales Of Franceville | Rougeron V.,IRD Montpellier | Sam I.-C.,University of Malaya | Caron M.,Center International Of Recherches Medicales Of Franceville | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Virology

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family that causes chronic and incapacitating arthralgia in human populations. Since its discovery in 1952, CHIKV was responsible for sporadic and infrequent outbreaks. However, since 2005, global Chikungunya outbreaks have occurred, inducing some fatalities and associated with severe and chronic morbidity. Chikungunya is thus considered as an important re-emerging public health problem in both tropical and temperate countries, where the distribution of the Aedes mosquito vectors continues to expand. This review highlights the most recent advances in our knowledge and understanding of the epidemiology, biology, treatment and vaccination strategies of CHIKV. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Nkoghe D.,Center International Of Recherches Medicales Of Franceville | Kone M.L.,World Health Organization | Yada A.,World Health Organization | Leroy E.,Center International Of Recherches Medicales Of Franceville | Leroy E.,Aix - Marseille University
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Ebolavirus has caused highly lethal outbreaks of haemorrhagic fever in the Congo basin. The 2005 outbreak in the Republic of Congo occurred in the Etoumbi district of Cuvette Ouest Department between April and May. The two index cases were infected while poaching. The sanitary response consisted of active surveillance and contact tracing, public awareness campaigns and community mobilization, case management and safe burial practices, and laboratory confirmation. Twelve cases and ten deaths were reported (lethality 83%). A transmission tree was constructed from a sample collected by a medical team. This outbreak was remarkable by its short duration and limited size. Increased awareness among these previously affected populations and the rapid response of the healthcare system probably contributed to its extinction. © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Source

Rougeron V.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Rougeron V.,Center International Of Recherches Medicales Of Franceville | De MeeUs T.,CIRDES Center International Of Recherche Developpement Sur Lelevage En Zone Sub Humide | Banuls A.-L.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Trends in Parasitology

Leishmaniases remain a major public health problem. Despite the development of elaborate experimental techniques and sophisticated statistical tools, how these parasites evolve, adapt themselves to new environmental compartments and hosts, and develop resistance to new drugs remains unclear. Leishmania parasites constitute a complex model from a biological, ecological, and epidemiological point of view but also with respect to their genetics and phylogenetics. With this in view, we seek to outline the criteria, caveats, and confounding factors to be considered for Leishmania population genetic studies. We examine how the taxonomic complexity, heterozygosity, intraspecific and interspecific recombination, aneuploidy, and ameiotic recombination of Leishmania intersect with population genetic studies of this parasite. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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