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Mombo I.M.,Center International Of Recherche Medicale Of Franceville | Mombo I.M.,IRD Montpellier | Berthet N.,Center International Of Recherche Medicale Of Franceville | Berthet N.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 21 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Enteroviruses, members of the Picornaviridae family, are ubiquitous viruses responsible for mild to severe infections in human populations around the world. In 2010 Pointe-Noire, Republic of Congo recorded an outbreak of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in the humans, caused by wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1). One month later, in the Tchimpounga sanctuary near Pointe-Noire, a chimpanzee developed signs similar to AFP, with paralysis of the lower limbs. In the present work, we sought to identify the pathogen, including viral and bacterial agents, responsible for this illness. In order to identify the causative agent, we evaluated a fecal specimen by PCR and sequencing. A Human enterovirus C, specifically of the EV-C99 type was potentially responsible for the illness in this chimpanzee. To rule out other possible causative agents, we also investigated the bacteriome and the virome using next generation sequencing. The majority of bacterial reads obtained belonged to commensal bacteria (95%), and the mammalian virus reads matched mainly with viruses of the Picornaviridae family (99%), in which enteroviruses were the most abundant (99.6%). This study thus reports the first identification of a chimpanzee presenting AFP most likely caused by an enterovirus and demonstrates once again the cross-species transmission of a human pathogen to an ape. Copyright © 2015 Mombo et al.

Ondo J.P.,CNRS Organic Chemistry, Bioorganic Chemistry: Reactivity and Analysis | Ondo J.P.,Center International Of Recherche Medicale Of Franceville | Ondo J.P.,Universite des Sciences et Techniques de Masuku | Lekana-Douki J.B.,Center International Of Recherche Medicale Of Franceville | And 7 more authors.
Tropical Medicine and International Health | Year: 2012

Vitex madiensis Oliv. (Lamiaceae) is traditionally used to treat malaria symptoms in Haut-Ogooué, Gabon. Leaves and stem barks extracts were obtained using dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and methanol (MeOH) as extraction solvents and fractionated on silica gel column. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of CH2Cl2, EtOAc and MeOH extracts and fractions was evaluated against the chloroquine-resistant FCB strain and field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum using the DELI test. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was tested on MRC-5 and THP1 cells using the tetrazolium salt MTT colorimetric assay, and the selectivity index (SI) of each extract was calculated. CH2Cl2 extract, the EA1 fraction from EtOAc extract of stem barks and cyclohexane (Lcycl), dichloromethane (LDM) and butanol (Lbut) fractions from MeOH/H2O extract of leaves exhibited the highest in vitro antiplasmodial activity on FCB strain and field isolates (IC50 from 0.53 to 4.87μg/ml) with high selectivity index (of 20.15-1800). These data support the use of V. madiensis in malaria treatment along with continued investigations within traditional medicines in the search of new antimalarial agents. The EA1, C6H12 and CH2Cl2 fractions could be selected for future investigation or/and for the treatment of malaria symptoms after standardization. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Boundenga L.,Center International Of Recherche Medicale Of Franceville | Boundenga L.,Cheikh Anta Diop University | Ollomo B.,Center International Of Recherche Medicale Of Franceville | Rougeron V.,Center International Of Recherche Medicale Of Franceville | And 21 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2015

Background: Until 2009, the Laverania subgenus counted only two representatives: Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium reichenowi. The recent development of non-invasive methods allowed re-exploration of plasmodial diversity in African apes. Although a large number of great ape populations have now been studied regarding Plasmodium infections in Africa, there are still vast areas of their distribution that remained unexplored. Gabon constitutes an important part of the range of western central African great ape subspecies (Pan troglodytes troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla gorilla), but has not been studied so far. In the present study, the diversity of Plasmodium species circulating in great apes in Gabon was analysed. Methods: The analysis of 1,261 faecal samples from 791 chimpanzees and 470 gorillas collected from 24 sites all over Gabon was performed. Plasmodium infections were characterized by amplification and sequencing of a portion of the Plasmodium cytochrome b gene. Results: The analysis of the 1,261 samples revealed that at least six Plasmodium species circulate in great apes in Gabon (Plasmodium praefalciparum, Plasmodium gorA (syn Plasmodium adleri), Plasmodium gorB (syn Plasmodium blacklocki) in gorillas and Plasmodium gaboni, P. reichenowi and Plasmodium billcollinsi in chimpanzees). No new phylogenetic lineages were discovered. The average infection rate was 21.3% for gorillas and 15.4% for chimpanzees. A logistic regression showed that the probability of infection was significantly dependent on the freshness of the droppings but not of the host species or of the average pluviometry of the months of collection. © 2015 Boundenga et al.; licensee BioMed Central.

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