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Tartour K.,Ciri Center International Of Recherche En Infectiologie | Tartour K.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Tartour K.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon | Tartour K.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 6 more authors.

During evolution, organisms developed adaptative mechanisms to survive continuous aggressions from a variety of pathogens. Among these lines of defence, many cellular proteins have been described to modulate viral replication and are the subject of intense study. This review will focus on IFITM (interferon induced transmembrane protein), a family of proteins that act against a particularly wide range of viruses. We will summarize our knowledge of the antiviral mechanisms used by IFITM to interfere with the replication of several viruses, and more specifically HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). © 2015 médecine/sciences - Inserm. Source

Saison J.,Immunology Laboratory | Saison J.,Infectious and Tropical Disease Unit | Saison J.,University of Lyon | Saison J.,Ciri Center International Of Recherche En Infectiologie | And 19 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Immunology

The mechanisms sustaining the absence of complete immune recovery in HIV-infected patients upon long-term effective highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) remain elusive. Immune activation, regulatory T cells (Tregs) or very low-level viraemia (VLLV) have been alternatively suspected, but rarely investigated simultaneously. We performed a cross-sectional study in HIV-infected aviraemic subjects (mean duration of HAART: 12 years) to concomitantly assess parameters associated independently with inadequate immunological response. Patients were classified as complete immunological responders (cIR, n=48) and inadequate immunological responders (iIR, n=39), depending on the CD4+ T cell count (> or<500/mm3). Clinical and virological data (including very low-level viraemia) were collected. In parallel, immunophenotyping of CD4+ lymphocytes, including Treg subsets, and CD8+ T cells was performed. Percentages of activated CD4+ T cells, Tregs, effector Tregs and terminal effector Tregs were found to be significantly elevated in iIR. Neither the percentage of activated CD8+ T cells nor VLLV were found to be associated with iIR. In the multivariate analysis, nadir of CD4+ T cell count and percentage of Tregs were the only two parameters associated independently with iIR [odds ratio (OR)=2·339, P=0·001, and OR=0·803, P=0·041]. We present here the largest study investigating simultaneously the immune response to long-term HAART, activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, Treg percentages and very low-level viraemia. Causative interactions between Tregs and CD4+ T cells should now be explored prospectively in a large patients cohort. © 2014 British Society for Immunology. Source

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