Center Institute Armand Frappier

Laval, Canada

Center Institute Armand Frappier

Laval, Canada

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Yuki K.E.,McGill University | Eva M.M.,McGill University | Richer E.,McGill University | Chung D.,University of Victoria | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Salmonella, a ubiquitous Gram-negative intracellular bacterium, is a food borne pathogen that infects a broad range of hosts. Infection with Salmonella Typhimurium in mice is a broadly recognized experimental model resembling typhoid fever in humans. Using a N-ethyl-N-nitrosurea (ENU) mutagenesis recessive screen, we report the identification of Ity16 (Immunity to Typhimurium locus 16), a locus responsible for increased susceptibility to infection. The position of Ity16 was refined on chromosome 8 and a nonsense mutation was identified in the ankyrin 1 (Ank1) gene. ANK1 plays an important role in the formation and stabilization of the red cell cytoskeleton. The Ank1Ity16/Ity16 mutation causes severe hemolytic anemia in uninfected mice resulting in splenomegaly, hyperbilirubinemia, jaundice, extramedullary erythropoiesis and iron overload in liver and kidneys. Ank1Ity16/Ity16 mutant mice demonstrated low levels of hepcidin (Hamp) expression and significant increases in the expression of the growth differentiation factor 15 (Gdf15), erythropoietin (Epo) and heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) exacerbating extramedullary erythropoiesis, tissue iron deposition and splenomegaly. As the infection progresses in Ank1Ity16/Ity16, the anemia worsens and bacterial load were high in liver and kidneys compared to wild type mice. Heterozygous Ank1+/Ity16 mice were also more susceptible to Salmonella infection although to a lesser extent than Ank1Ity16/Ity16 and they did not inherently present anemia and splenomegaly. During infection, iron accumulated in the kidneys of Ank1+/Ity16 mice where bacterial loads were high compared to littermate controls. The critical role of HAMP in the host response to Salmonella infection was validated by showing increased susceptibility to infection in Hamp-deficient mice and significant survival benefits in Ank1+/Ity16 heterozygous mice treated with HAMP peptide. This study illustrates that the regulation of Hamp and iron balance are crucial in the host response to Salmonella infection in Ank1 mutants. © 2013 Yuki et al.


Hammann C.,TU Darmstadt | Hammann C.,Jacobs University Bremen | Luptak A.,University of California at Irvine | Perreault J.,Center Institute Armand Frappier | De La Pena M.,Institute Biologia Molecular Y Celular Of Plantas Upv Csic
RNA | Year: 2012

The hammerhead ribozyme is a small catalytic RNA motif capable of endonucleolytic (self-) cleavage. It is composed of a catalytic core of conserved nucleotides flanked by three helices, two of which form essential tertiary interactions for fast self-scission under physiological conditions. Originally discovered in subviral plant pathogens, its presence in several eukaryotic genomes has been reported since. More recently, this catalytic RNA motif has been shown to reside in a large number of genomes. We review the different approaches in discovering these new hammerhead ribozyme sequences and discuss possible biological functions of the genomic motifs. Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Copyright © 2012 RNA Society.


Constant P.,Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology | Constant P.,Center Institute Armand Frappier | Chowdhury S.P.,Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology | Chowdhury S.P.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | And 3 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2011

Streptomyces soil isolates exhibiting the unique ability to oxidize atmospheric H 2 possess genes specifying a putative high-affinity [NiFe]-hydrogenase. This study was undertaken to explore the taxonomic diversity and the ecological importance of this novel functional group. We propose to designate the genes encoding the small and large subunits of the putative high-affinity hydrogenase hhyS and hhyL, respectively. Genome data mining revealed that the hhyL gene is unevenly distributed in the phyla Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Acidobacteria. The hhyL gene sequences comprised a phylogenetically distinct group, namely, the group 5 [NiFe]-hydrogenase genes. The presumptive high-affinity H 2-oxidizing bacteria constituting group 5 were shown to possess a hydrogenase gene cluster, including the genes encoding auxiliary and structural components of the enzyme and four additional open reading frames (ORFs) of unknown function. A soil survey confirmed that both high-affinity H 2 oxidation activity and the hhyL gene are ubiquitous. A quantitative PCR assay revealed that soil contained 10 6 to 10 8 hhyL gene copies g (dry weight) -1. Assuming one hhyL gene copy per genome, the abundance of presumptive high-affinity H 2-oxidizing bacteria was higher than the maximal population size for which maintenance energy requirements would be fully supplied through the H 2 oxidation activity measured in soil. Our data indicate that the abundance of the hhyL gene should not be taken as a reliable proxy for the uptake of atmospheric H 2 by soil, because high-affinity H 2 oxidation is a facultatively mixotrophic metabolism, and microorganisms harboring a nonfunctional group 5 [NiFe]-hydrogenase may occur. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology.


Stewart M.K.G.,University of Western Ontario | Plante I.,Center Institute Armand Frappier | Penuela S.,University of Western Ontario | Laird D.W.,University of Western Ontario
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Pannexin1 (Panx1) subunits oligomerize to form large-pore channels between the intracellular and extracellular milieu that have been shown to regulate proliferation, differentiation and cell death mechanisms. These key cellular responses are ultimately necessary for normal tissue development and function but the role of Panx1 in development, differentiation and function in many tissues remains unexplored, including that of the breast. Panx1 was identified to be expressed in the mammary gland through western blot and immunofluorescent analysis and is dynamically upregulated during pregnancy and lactation. In order to evaluate the role of Panx1 in the context of mammary gland development and function, Panx1-/- mice were evaluated in comparison to wild-type mice in the mammary glands of virgin, lactating and involuting mice. Our results revealed that Panx1 ablation did not affect virgin or involuting mammary glands following histological and whole mount analysis. Panx1 was necessary for timely alveolar development during early lactation based on a decreased number of alveolar lumen following histological analysis and reduced proliferation following Ki67 immunofluorescent labelling. Importantly, the loss of Panx1 in lactating mammary glands did not overtly affect epithelial or secretory differentiation of the mammary gland suggesting that Panx1 is not critical in normal mammary gland function. In addition, PANX1 mRNA expression was correlated with negative clinical outcomes in patients with breast cancer using in silico arrays. Together, our results suggest that Panx1 is necessary for timely alveolar development following the transition from pregnancy to lactation, which may have implications extending to patients with breast cancer. © 2016 Stewart et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


PubMed | University of Western Ontario and Center Institute Armand Frappier
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Pannexin1 (Panx1) subunits oligomerize to form large-pore channels between the intracellular and extracellular milieu that have been shown to regulate proliferation, differentiation and cell death mechanisms. These key cellular responses are ultimately necessary for normal tissue development and function but the role of Panx1 in development, differentiation and function in many tissues remains unexplored, including that of the breast. Panx1 was identified to be expressed in the mammary gland through western blot and immunofluorescent analysis and is dynamically upregulated during pregnancy and lactation. In order to evaluate the role of Panx1 in the context of mammary gland development and function, Panx1-/- mice were evaluated in comparison to wild-type mice in the mammary glands of virgin, lactating and involuting mice. Our results revealed that Panx1 ablation did not affect virgin or involuting mammary glands following histological and whole mount analysis. Panx1 was necessary for timely alveolar development during early lactation based on a decreased number of alveolar lumen following histological analysis and reduced proliferation following Ki67 immunofluorescent labelling. Importantly, the loss of Panx1 in lactating mammary glands did not overtly affect epithelial or secretory differentiation of the mammary gland suggesting that Panx1 is not critical in normal mammary gland function. In addition, PANX1 mRNA expression was correlated with negative clinical outcomes in patients with breast cancer using in silico arrays. Together, our results suggest that Panx1 is necessary for timely alveolar development following the transition from pregnancy to lactation, which may have implications extending to patients with breast cancer.


PubMed | McGill University, Université de Sherbrooke and Center Institute Armand Frappier
Type: | Journal: Placenta | Year: 2016

Infection or inflammation during pregnancy is known to lead to maternal immune activation triggering a fetal inflammatory response syndrome associated with deleterious effects, such as brain injury and neurodevelopmental disabilities. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) - one of the most common bacterium colonizing pregnant women - can be responsible for chorioamnionitis. Given that interleukin (IL)-1 has a major role in anti-GBS host defense, we hypothesized that IL-1-driven innate immune response is implicated in GBS-induced chorioamnionitis. Using a rat model of GBS-induced chorioamnionitis, this study showed that inflammatory response to this pathogen was associated with maternal and placental IL-1 hyper expression. Following placental chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) production, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) placental infiltration started at 24h post-GBS exposure, and MMP-10 was released within these placentas. At 72h, PMN infiltration extended to membranes and to membranes arteries. This was associated with IL-1 release within the fetus blood at 72h. Such a GBS-associated inflammatory cascade might be deleterious for fetal organs. These results pave the way toward targeted placento-protective anti-inflammatory strategies against GBS-induced chorioamnionitis.


Kanno M.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Constant P.,Center Institute Armand Frappier | Tamaki H.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Kamagata Y.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2016

High-affinity hydrogen (H2)-oxidizing bacteria possessing group 5 [NiFe]-hydrogenase genes are important contributors to atmospheric H2 uptake in soil environments. Although previous studies reported the occurrence of a significant H2 uptake activity in vegetation, there has been no report on the identification and diversity of the responsible microorganisms. Here, we show the existence of plant-associated bacteria with the ability to consume atmospheric H2 that may be a potential energy source required for their persistence in plants. Detection of the gene hhyL – encoding the large subunit of group 5 [NiFe]-hydrogenase – in plant tissues showed that plant-associated high-affinity H2-oxidizing bacteria are widely distributed in herbaceous plants. Among a collection of 145 endophytic isolates, seven Streptomyces strains were shown to possess hhyL gene and exhibit high- or intermediate-affinity H2 uptake activity. Inoculation of Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) and Oryza sativa (rice) seedlings with selected isolates resulted in an internalization of the bacteria in plant tissues. H2 uptake activity per bacterial cells was comparable between plant and soil, demonstrating that both environments are favourable for the H2 uptake activity of streptomycetes. This study first demonstrated the occurrence of plant-associated high-affinity H2-oxidizing bacteria and proposed their potential contribution as atmospheric H2 sink. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


PubMed | Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology and Center Institute Armand Frappier
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental microbiology | Year: 2016

High-affinity hydrogen (H2 )-oxidizing bacteria possessing group 5 [NiFe]-hydrogenase genes are important contributors to atmospheric H2 uptake in soil environments. Although previous studies reported the occurrence of a significant H2 uptake activity in vegetation, there has been no report on the identification and diversity of the responsible microorganisms. Here, we show the existence of plant-associated bacteria with the ability to consume atmospheric H2 that may be a potential energy source required for their persistence in plants. Detection of the gene hhyL- encoding the large subunit of group 5 [NiFe]-hydrogenase - in plant tissues showed that plant-associated high-affinity H2 -oxidizing bacteria are widely distributed in herbaceous plants. Among a collection of 145 endophytic isolates, seven Streptomyces strains were shown to possess hhyL gene and exhibit high- or intermediate-affinity H2 uptake activity. Inoculation of Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) and Oryza sativa (rice) seedlings with selected isolates resulted in an internalization of the bacteria in plant tissues. H2 uptake activity per bacterial cells was comparable between plant and soil, demonstrating that both environments are favourable for the H2 uptake activity of streptomycetes. This study first demonstrated the occurrence of plant-associated high-affinity H2 -oxidizing bacteria and proposed their potential contribution as atmospheric H2 sink.


Ooi Y.S.,Yeshiva University | Ooi Y.S.,Stanford University | Dube M.,Yeshiva University | Dube M.,Center Institute Armand Frappier | Kielian M.,Yeshiva University
Viruses | Year: 2015

Alphaviruses such as chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Semliki Forest virus (SFV) are small enveloped RNA viruses that bud from the plasma membrane. Tetherin/BST2 is an interferon-induced host membrane protein that inhibits the release of many enveloped viruses via direct tethering of budded particles to the cell surface. Alphaviruses have highly organized structures and exclude host membrane proteins from the site of budding, suggesting that their release might be insensitive to tetherin inhibition. Here, we demonstrated that exogenously-expressed tetherin efficiently inhibited the release of SFV and CHIKV particles from host cells without affecting virus entry and infection. Alphavirus release was also inhibited by the endogenous levels of tetherin in HeLa cells. While rubella virus (RuV) and dengue virus (DENV) have structural similarities to alphaviruses, tetherin inhibited the release of RuV but not DENV. We found that two recently identified tetherin isoforms differing in length at the N-terminus exhibited distinct capabilities in restricting alphavirus release. SFV exit was efficiently inhibited by the long isoform but not the short isoform of tetherin, while both isoforms inhibited vesicular stomatitis virus exit. Thus, in spite of the organized structure of the virus particle, tetherin specifically blocks alphavirus release and shows an interesting isoform requirement. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Cote-Lussier C.,Center Institute Armand Frappier | Fitzpatrick C.,Center Institute Armand Frappier | Seguin L.,Center Institute Armand Frappier | Barnett T.A.,Center Institute Armand Frappier
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2015

This study applied socioecological and cumulative risk exposure frameworks to test the hypotheses that 1) the experience of poverty is associated with feeling less safe at school, and 2) feeling less safe is associated with engaging in poorer weight-related behaviors, as well as an increased probability of being overweight or obese. Data were from the ongoing QuCrossed D sign©bec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, initiated in 1998 with a population-based cohort of 2,120 QuCrossed D sign©bec (Canada) infants 5 months of age and their parent or primary caregiver. Measures of youths' (age, 13 years) self-reported feelings of safety, screen time, physical activity, and objectively assessed not overweight/obese (70%), overweight (22%), and obese (8%) weight status were collected in 2011. Family poverty trajectory from birth was assessed by using latent growth modeling. As hypothesized, exposure to poverty was associated with feeling less safe at school and, in turn, with an increased probability of being overweight or obese. The association was most pronounced for youths who experienced chronic poverty. Compared with youths who experienced no poverty and felt unsafe, those who experienced chronic poverty and felt unsafe were nearly 18% more likely to be obese (9.2% vs. 11.2%). Although feeling unsafe was associated with screen time, screen time did not predict weight status. © 2015 The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved.

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