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Plouzané, France

Sea surface temperature, chlorophyll, and turbidity are three variables of the coastal environment commonly measured by monitoring networks. The observation networks are often based on coastal stations, which do not provide a sufficient coverage to validate the model outputs or to be used in assimilation over the continental shelf. Conversely, the products derived from satellite reflectance generally show a decreasing quality shoreward, and an assessment of the limitation of these data is required. The annual cycle, mean, and percentile 90 of the chlorophyll concentration derived from MERIS/ESA and MODIS/NASA data processed with a dedicated algorithm have been compared to in-situ observations at twenty-six selected stations from the Mediterranean Sea to the North Sea. Keeping in mind the validation, the forcing, or the assimilation in hydrological, sediment-transport, or ecological models, the non-algal Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) is also a parameter which is expected from the satellite imagery. However, the monitoring networks measure essentially the turbidity and a consistency between chlorophyll, representative of the phytoplankton biomass, non-algal SPM, and turbidity is required. In this study, we derive the satellite turbidity from chlorophyll and non-algal SPM with a common formula applied to in-situ or satellite observations. The distribution of the satellite-derived turbidity exhibits the same main statistical characteristics as those measured in-situ, which satisfies the first condition to monitor the long-term changes or the large-scale spatial variation over the continental shelf and along the shore. For the first time, climatologies of turbidity, so useful for mapping the environment of the benthic habitats, are proposed from space on areas as different as the southern North Sea or the western Mediterranean Sea, with validation at coastal stations. © Author(s) 2011. Source

Rodrigues C.F.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Rodrigues C.F.,University of Aveiro | Cunha M.R.,University of Aveiro | Olu K.,Center Ifremer Of Brest | Duperron S.,University Pierre and Marie Curie

Species of Isorropodon are vesicomyid bivalves for which little information is available regarding host phylogeny and bacterial symbioses. In this study we investigated the symbioses in three Isorropodon species from three cold seep areas: Isorropodon bigoti (Gulf of Guinea), Isorropodon megadesmus (Gulf of Cadiz) and Isorropodon perplexum (Eastern Mediterranean). Analysis of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences demonstrated that each vesicomyid species harbours a single symbiont phylotype, that symbionts from the three species cluster together, and that they are closely related to other known vesicomyid symbionts. These results are confirmed by other marker genes (encoding 23S rRNA and APS reductase) and by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Due to their extended depth range and transoceanic distribution Isorropodon species are interesting examples to further study evolutionary processes in bivalve hosts and their associated symbionts. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012. Source

Obrebski M.,University of California at Berkeley | Obrebski M.,Center Ifremer Of Brest | Allen R.M.,University of California at Berkeley | Zhang F.,China Earthquake Administration | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth

The India-Eurasia collision and the decratonization of the North China Craton have drawn much attention from the scientific community. Here we provide the first large-scale S wave velocity model for China (CH11-S) based on constraints from both teleseismic surface and body waves. We take advantage of the recent deployment of the 140 permanent stations of the Chinese Digital Seismic Network and temporary network deployments to resolve both the lithospheric and deeper mantle structure. Slow velocities are widespread in the crust and upper mantle. Deeply rooted fast anomalies are located beneath the stable Yangtze Craton and the western (Ordos) block of the North China Craton. An upper mantle fast anomaly is observed beneath the eastern block of the North China Craton and could represent thermally eroded or delaminated Precambrian lithosphere. Another flat and fast feature appears beneath the Tibetan Plateau from 50 to 250 km depth. This may represent the Indian slab stalled in the mantle due to its buoyancy or a lithospheric instability triggered by the India-Eurasia collision. A large fast anomaly apparently stagnant in the transition zone is observed beneath the Yangtze Craton and may play a role in the stability of this block. In contrast, on both sides of the South China Block, active and reactivated areas coincide with oceanic slab material that has already sunk into the lower mantle and that may have enhanced tectonic activity by forcing convection. Finally, the upper mantle beneath Tibet seems almost completely surrounded by adjacent high-velocity and presumably strong blocks. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union. Source

Lelchat F.,Center Ifremer Of Brest | Cerantola S.,University of Western Brittany | Brandily C.,Center Ifremer Of Brest | Colliec-Jouault S.,Center Ifremer Of Brest | And 4 more authors.
Carbohydrate Polymers

We have studied the exopolysaccharide produced by Cobetia marina DSMZ 4741, a marine bacterium isolated from coastal seawater. This strain is able to produce a polysaccharide in presence of carbon sources as glucose, mannitol and alginate. The maximum production occurs in aerobic condition, during the end of the exponential phase. The polymer is a non-viscous, acidic heteropolysaccharide of 270 kDa constituted of a repeating unit of:→2)-β-d-Ribf-(1→4)-[7,8-O-(Pyr)]-α-d-KDOp-(2→ This kind of chemical structure is generally related to K-antigen polysaccharide of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. This is the first time this type of EPS is described from a marine bacterium. Moreover the polysaccharide exhibits a pyruvate substitution on its 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (KDO) residue never encountered before. The discovery of such an unexpected EPS with high biotechnological potential is a new incentive for a better exploration of bioactive marine resources. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Ollivier H.,University of Western Brittany | Marchant J.,Center Ifremer Of Brest | Le Bayon N.,Center Ifremer Of Brest | Servili A.,Center Ifremer Of Brest | Claireaux G.,Center Ifremer Of Brest
Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology

Climate change challenges the capacity of fishes to thrive in their habitat. However, through phenotypic diversity, they demonstrate remarkable resilience to deteriorating conditions. In fish populations, inter-individual variation in a number of fitness-determining physiological traits, including cardiac performance, is classically observed. Information about the cellular bases of inter-individual variability in cardiac performance is scarce including the possible contribution of excitation–contraction (EC) coupling. This study aimed at providing insight into EC coupling-related Ca2+ response and thermal plasticity in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). A cell population approach was used to lay the methodological basis for identifying the cellular determinants of cardiac performance. Fish were acclimated at 12 and 22 °C and changes in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) following KCl stimulation were measured using Fura-2, at 12 or 22 °C-test. The increase in [Ca2+]i resulted primarily from extracellular Ca2+ entry but sarcoplasmic reticulum stores were also shown to be involved. As previously reported in sea bass, a modest effect of adrenaline was observed. Moreover, although the response appeared relatively insensitive to an acute temperature change, a difference in Ca2+ response was observed between 12- and 22 °C-acclimated fish. In particular, a greater increase in [Ca2+]i at a high level of adrenaline was observed in 22 °C-acclimated fish that may be related to an improved efficiency of adrenaline under these conditions. In conclusion, this method allows a rapid screening of cellular characteristics. It represents a promising tool to identify the cellular determinants of inter-individual variability in fishes’ capacity for environmental adaptation. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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