Plouzané, France
Plouzané, France

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Husson B.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Hernandez-Farinas T.,Station Biologique de Roscoff Roscoff Marine Station | Hernandez-Farinas T.,Center Ifremer Of Brest | Le Gendre R.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | And 2 more authors.
Harmful Algae | Year: 2016

King scallop contamination (Pecten maximus) by domoic acid, a neurotoxin produced by some species of the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia, is highly problematic because of its lengthy retention in the bivalve tissue, leading to prolonged fishery closures. Data collected within the French Phytoplankton and Phycotoxin monitoring network (REPHY) over the 1995-2012 period were used to characterize the seasonal dynamics and the interannual variability of P.-nitzschia spp. blooms as well as the contamination of king scallop fishing grounds, in six contrasted bays distributed along the French Atlantic coast and English Channel. Monitoring revealed that these toxic events have become more frequent since the year 2000, but with varying magnitudes, frequencies and timing depending on the bay. Two bays, located in southern Brittany, exhibited both recurrent contaminations and high P.-nitzschia abundances. The Brest bay and the Seine bay were intermittently affected. The Pertuis Breton exhibited only one major toxic event related to an exceptionally intense bloom of P.-nitzschia in 2010, and the Saint Brieuc bay neither showed significant contamination nor high P.-nitzschia abundance. While high P.-nitzschia abundance appeared to be correlated to scallop toxicity, this study highlights the difficulty in linking P.-nitzschia spp. blooms to king scallop contamination through monitoring. Indeed, P.-nitzschia was determined at the genus level and data regarding species abundances and their toxicity levels are an absolute prerequisite to further assess the environmental control of ASP events. As results describe distinct P.-nitzschia bloom dynamics along the French coast, this may suggest distinct controlling factors. They also revealed that major climatic events, such as the winter storm Xynthia in 2010, can trigger toxicity in P.-nitzschia over a large spatial scale and impact king scallop fisheries all along the coast. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Couvelard X.,CNRS Physics Laboratory | Couvelard X.,Center Ifremer Of Brest | Dumas F.,Center Ifremer Of Brest | Garnier V.,Center Ifremer Of Brest | And 3 more authors.
Ocean Modelling | Year: 2015

Recent realistic high resolution modeling studies show a net increase of submesoscale activity in fall and winter when the mixed layer depth is at its maximum. This submesoscale activity increase is associated with a reduced deepening of the mixed layer. Both phenomena can be related to the development of mixed layer instabilities, which convert available potential energy into submesoscale eddy kinetic energy and contribute to a fast restratification by slumping the horizontal density gradient in the mixed layer. In the present work, the mixed layer formation and restratification were studied by uniformly cooling a fully turbulent zonal jet in a periodic channel at different resolutions, from eddy resolving (10 km) to submesoscale permitting (2 km). The effect of the submesoscale activity, highlighted by these different horizontal resolutions, was quantified in terms of mixed layer depth, restratification rate and buoyancy fluxes. Contrary to many idealized studies focusing on the restratification phase only, this study addresses a continuous event of mixed layer formation followed by its complete restratification. The robustness of the present results was established by ensemble simulations. The results show that, at higher resolution, when submesoscale starts to be resolved, the mixed layer formed during the surface cooling is significantly shallower and the total restratification is almost three times faster. Such differences between coarse and fine resolution models are consistent with the submesoscale upward buoyancy flux, which balances the convection during the formation phase and accelerates the restratification once the surface cooling is stopped. This submesoscale buoyancy flux is active even below the mixed layer. Our simulations show that mesoscale dynamics also cause restratification, but on longer time scales. Finally, the spatial distribution of the mixed layer depth is highly heterogeneous in the presence of submesoscale activity, prompting the question of whether it is possible to parameterize submesoscale effects and their effects on the marine biology as a function of a spatially-averaged mixed layer depth. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Obrebski M.,University of California at Berkeley | Obrebski M.,Center Ifremer Of Brest | Allen R.M.,University of California at Berkeley | Zhang F.,China Earthquake Administration | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth | Year: 2012

The India-Eurasia collision and the decratonization of the North China Craton have drawn much attention from the scientific community. Here we provide the first large-scale S wave velocity model for China (CH11-S) based on constraints from both teleseismic surface and body waves. We take advantage of the recent deployment of the 140 permanent stations of the Chinese Digital Seismic Network and temporary network deployments to resolve both the lithospheric and deeper mantle structure. Slow velocities are widespread in the crust and upper mantle. Deeply rooted fast anomalies are located beneath the stable Yangtze Craton and the western (Ordos) block of the North China Craton. An upper mantle fast anomaly is observed beneath the eastern block of the North China Craton and could represent thermally eroded or delaminated Precambrian lithosphere. Another flat and fast feature appears beneath the Tibetan Plateau from 50 to 250 km depth. This may represent the Indian slab stalled in the mantle due to its buoyancy or a lithospheric instability triggered by the India-Eurasia collision. A large fast anomaly apparently stagnant in the transition zone is observed beneath the Yangtze Craton and may play a role in the stability of this block. In contrast, on both sides of the South China Block, active and reactivated areas coincide with oceanic slab material that has already sunk into the lower mantle and that may have enhanced tectonic activity by forcing convection. Finally, the upper mantle beneath Tibet seems almost completely surrounded by adjacent high-velocity and presumably strong blocks. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.


Rodrigues C.F.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Rodrigues C.F.,University of Aveiro | Cunha M.R.,University of Aveiro | Olu K.,Center Ifremer Of Brest | Duperron S.,University Pierre and Marie Curie
Symbiosis | Year: 2012

Species of Isorropodon are vesicomyid bivalves for which little information is available regarding host phylogeny and bacterial symbioses. In this study we investigated the symbioses in three Isorropodon species from three cold seep areas: Isorropodon bigoti (Gulf of Guinea), Isorropodon megadesmus (Gulf of Cadiz) and Isorropodon perplexum (Eastern Mediterranean). Analysis of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences demonstrated that each vesicomyid species harbours a single symbiont phylotype, that symbionts from the three species cluster together, and that they are closely related to other known vesicomyid symbionts. These results are confirmed by other marker genes (encoding 23S rRNA and APS reductase) and by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Due to their extended depth range and transoceanic distribution Isorropodon species are interesting examples to further study evolutionary processes in bivalve hosts and their associated symbionts. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012.


Lelchat F.,Center Ifremer Of Brest | Cerantola S.,University of Western Brittany | Brandily C.,Center Ifremer Of Brest | Colliec-Jouault S.,Center Ifremer Of Brest | And 4 more authors.
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2015

We have studied the exopolysaccharide produced by Cobetia marina DSMZ 4741, a marine bacterium isolated from coastal seawater. This strain is able to produce a polysaccharide in presence of carbon sources as glucose, mannitol and alginate. The maximum production occurs in aerobic condition, during the end of the exponential phase. The polymer is a non-viscous, acidic heteropolysaccharide of 270 kDa constituted of a repeating unit of:→2)-β-d-Ribf-(1→4)-[7,8-O-(Pyr)]-α-d-KDOp-(2→ This kind of chemical structure is generally related to K-antigen polysaccharide of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. This is the first time this type of EPS is described from a marine bacterium. Moreover the polysaccharide exhibits a pyruvate substitution on its 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (KDO) residue never encountered before. The discovery of such an unexpected EPS with high biotechnological potential is a new incentive for a better exploration of bioactive marine resources. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Duperron S.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Gaudron S.M.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Rodrigues C.F.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Rodrigues C.F.,University of Aveiro | And 3 more authors.
Biogeosciences | Year: 2013

Deep-sea bivalves found at hydrothermal vents, cold seeps and organic falls are sustained by chemosynthetic bacteria that ensure part or all of their carbon nutrition. These symbioses are of prime importance for the functioning of the ecosystems. Similar symbioses occur in other bivalve species living in shallow and coastal reduced habitats worldwide. In recent years, several deep-sea species have been investigated from continental margins around Europe, West Africa, eastern Americas, the Gulf of Mexico, and from hydrothermal vents on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In parallel, numerous, more easily accessible shallow marine species have been studied. Herein we provide a summary of the current knowledge available on chemosymbiotic bivalves in the area ranging west-to-east from the Gulf of Mexico to the Sea of Marmara, and north-to-south from the Arctic to the Gulf of Guinea. Characteristics of symbioses in 53 species from the area are summarized for each of the five bivalve families documented to harbor chemosynthetic symbionts (Mytilidae, Vesicomyidae, Solemyidae, Thyasiridae and Lucinidae). Comparisons are made between the families, with special emphasis on ecology, life cycle, and connectivity. Chemosynthetic symbioses are a major adaptation to ecosystems and habitats exposed to reducing conditions. However, relatively little is known regarding their diversity and functioning, apart from a few "model species" on which effort has focused over the last 30 yr. In the context of increasing concern about biodiversity and ecosystems, and increasing anthropogenic pressure on oceans, we advocate a better assessment of the diversity of bivalve symbioses in order to evaluate the capacities of these remarkable ecological and evolutionary units to withstand environmental change. © Author(s) 2013.


PubMed | French National Center for Scientific Research, University Pierre and Marie Curie, University of Western Brittany, Hokkaido University and Center Ifremer Of Brest
Type: | Journal: Carbohydrate polymers | Year: 2015

We have studied the exopolysaccharide produced by Cobetia marina DSMZ 4741, a marine bacterium isolated from coastal seawater. This strain is able to produce a polysaccharide in presence of carbon sources as glucose, mannitol and alginate. The maximum production occurs in aerobic condition, during the end of the exponential phase. The polymer is a non-viscous, acidic heteropolysaccharide of 270kDa constituted of a repeating unit of: This kind of chemical structure is generally related to K-antigen polysaccharide of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. This is the first time this type of EPS is described from a marine bacterium. Moreover the polysaccharide exhibits a pyruvate substitution on its 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (KDO) residue never encountered before. The discovery of such an unexpected EPS with high biotechnological potential is a new incentive for a better exploration of bioactive marine resources.


Carlier A.,University of Western Brittany | Ritt B.,Center Ifremer Of Brest | Rodrigues C.F.,University of Aveiro | Sarrazin J.,Center Ifremer Of Brest | And 3 more authors.
Marine Biology | Year: 2010

Cold seep communities in the Mediterranean Sea have only been discovered two decades ago, and their trophic ecology has been the subject of very few studies. We investigated the benthic food web of two deep chemosynthesis-based ecosystems on the Napoli and Amsterdam mud volcanoes (MVs) in the eastern Mediterranean Sea (~2,000 m depth). Seeping methane has been detected at the surface of both MVs during pioneering cruises and has been hypothesised to be assimilated by benthic fauna as observed in other oceans' margins. Given the extreme oligotrophic character of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, we a priori expected that chemosynthetic food sources, especially methane-derived carbon (MDC), played a major trophic role in these deep seep communities relative to what has been observed in other seep systems worldwide. We aimed at unravelling the trophic relationships on Napoli and Amsterdam MVs through the analysis of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur isotopes both in the dominant benthic invertebrates including the small endofauna (300 μm < size < 1 cm) and in the sedimented organic matter. In particular, we assessed the fraction of MDC in the tissue of several heterotrophic and symbiotic species. Low mean δ 34S and δ 13C values (0.4 ± 4.8‰ and -31.6 ± 5.7‰, respectively) obtained for mega- and macrofauna suggested that the investigated benthic food webs are virtually exclusively fuelled by carbon of chemosynthetic origin. A few grazer invertebrates (δ 34S up to 11‰) depart from this trend and could complement their diet with sedimented and decayed phytoplanktonic organic matter. Faunal δ 13C values indicated that the oxidation of sulphur is likely the predominant energetic pathway for biosynthesis on both MVs. Nevertheless, mytilid bivalves and small capitellid, ampharetid and spionid polychaetes were 13C-depleted (δ 13C < -37‰) in a way indicating they assimilated a significant portion of MDC. For these later heterotrophic species, MDC ranged between 21 and 31% (lower estimates) and 97 and 100% (upper estimates). However, our results highlighted that the origin of assimilated carbon may be complex for some symbiotic species. The vestimentiferan tubeworm Lamellibrachia sp., which exclusively depends on its sulphur-oxidising endosymbionts, showed a ~20‰ inter-individual δ 13C variability on a very small spatial scale (<1 m) at the summit of Napoli MV. This mostly reflects the variable isotopic composition of pore-water-dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and evidenced that tubeworms (and subsequently their endosymbionts) uptake DIC derived from multiple methane oxidation processes in varying proportions. The lower and upper MDC estimates for the vestimentum of Napoli's individuals were 11-38 and 21-73%, respectively. Finally, data on trophic ecology of Napoli and Amsterdam MVs clearly corroborate previous geophysical results evidencing the spatial heterogeneity of Mediterranean MV environmental conditions. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Ollivier H.,University of Western Brittany | Marchant J.,Center Ifremer Of Brest | Le Bayon N.,Center Ifremer Of Brest | Servili A.,Center Ifremer Of Brest | Claireaux G.,Center Ifremer Of Brest
Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology | Year: 2015

Climate change challenges the capacity of fishes to thrive in their habitat. However, through phenotypic diversity, they demonstrate remarkable resilience to deteriorating conditions. In fish populations, inter-individual variation in a number of fitness-determining physiological traits, including cardiac performance, is classically observed. Information about the cellular bases of inter-individual variability in cardiac performance is scarce including the possible contribution of excitation–contraction (EC) coupling. This study aimed at providing insight into EC coupling-related Ca2+ response and thermal plasticity in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). A cell population approach was used to lay the methodological basis for identifying the cellular determinants of cardiac performance. Fish were acclimated at 12 and 22 °C and changes in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) following KCl stimulation were measured using Fura-2, at 12 or 22 °C-test. The increase in [Ca2+]i resulted primarily from extracellular Ca2+ entry but sarcoplasmic reticulum stores were also shown to be involved. As previously reported in sea bass, a modest effect of adrenaline was observed. Moreover, although the response appeared relatively insensitive to an acute temperature change, a difference in Ca2+ response was observed between 12- and 22 °C-acclimated fish. In particular, a greater increase in [Ca2+]i at a high level of adrenaline was observed in 22 °C-acclimated fish that may be related to an improved efficiency of adrenaline under these conditions. In conclusion, this method allows a rapid screening of cellular characteristics. It represents a promising tool to identify the cellular determinants of inter-individual variability in fishes’ capacity for environmental adaptation. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Sea surface temperature, chlorophyll, and turbidity are three variables of the coastal environment commonly measured by monitoring networks. The observation networks are often based on coastal stations, which do not provide a sufficient coverage to validate the model outputs or to be used in assimilation over the continental shelf. Conversely, the products derived from satellite reflectance generally show a decreasing quality shoreward, and an assessment of the limitation of these data is required. The annual cycle, mean, and percentile 90 of the chlorophyll concentration derived from MERIS/ESA and MODIS/NASA data processed with a dedicated algorithm have been compared to in-situ observations at twenty-six selected stations from the Mediterranean Sea to the North Sea. Keeping in mind the validation, the forcing, or the assimilation in hydrological, sediment-transport, or ecological models, the non-algal Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) is also a parameter which is expected from the satellite imagery. However, the monitoring networks measure essentially the turbidity and a consistency between chlorophyll, representative of the phytoplankton biomass, non-algal SPM, and turbidity is required. In this study, we derive the satellite turbidity from chlorophyll and non-algal SPM with a common formula applied to in-situ or satellite observations. The distribution of the satellite-derived turbidity exhibits the same main statistical characteristics as those measured in-situ, which satisfies the first condition to monitor the long-term changes or the large-scale spatial variation over the continental shelf and along the shore. For the first time, climatologies of turbidity, so useful for mapping the environment of the benthic habitats, are proposed from space on areas as different as the southern North Sea or the western Mediterranean Sea, with validation at coastal stations. © Author(s) 2011.

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