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Huynh M.,Center Hospitalier Veterinaire Fregis | Poumeyrol S.,National Veterinary School of Alfort | Pignon C.,National Veterinary School of Alfort | Le Teuff G.,Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy | Zilberstein L.,National Veterinary School of Alfort
Veterinary Record | Year: 2015

Alfaxalone is a neuroactive steroid derivative of pregnanedione that was recently reintroduced to the market for use as an induction agent in small animal anaesthesia. The aim of this study was to determine an intramuscular alfaxalone dose for safe immobilisation. Ten healthy New Zealand white rabbits were used to evaluate a single intramuscular injection of alfaxalone. The design of the study was a three-way, complete block, cross-over trial to compare the effect of alfaxalone at three doses (4, 6 and 8 mg). The mean duration of the effect for the 4, 6 and 8 mg/kg doses was, respectively, 36.9 (95% CI (31.6 to 42.3)), 51.8 (46.4 to 57.2) and 58.4 (52.8 to 63.9) minutes. The loss of the righting reflex was achieved after 3.1 (2.5 to 3.8), 2.4 (1.7 to 3.1) and 2.3 (1.6 to 2.9) minutes, respectively. The mean duration of the effect for the 6 and 8 mg doses was significantly higher than for the 4 mg dose (with estimated differences of 14.8 95% CI (8.8 to 20.8) minutes and 21.4 (15.3 to 27.6) minutes, respectively). No significant dose effect was observed before the loss of the righting reflex (P=0.14). Ear pinching and limb withdrawal were elicited in all groups at every dose. Doses of 4 or 6 mg/kg could be recommended; higher doses do not provide clinical benefits and can be associated with anaesthetic complication.


PubMed | National Veterinary School of Alfort and Center Hospitalier Veterinaire Fregis
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The veterinary clinics of North America. Exotic animal practice | Year: 2016

Rabbits have the ability to hide their signs and often present in a state of decompensatory shock. Handling can increase susceptibility to stress-induced cardiomyopathy and specific hemodynamic changes. Careful monitoring with a specific reference range is important to detect early decompensation, change the therapeutic plan in a timely manner, and assess prognostic indicators. Fluid requirements are higher in rabbits than in other small domestic mammals and can be corrected both enterally and parenterally. Critical care in rabbits can be extrapolated to many hindgut fermenters, but a specific reference range and dosage regimen need to be determined.


PubMed | University of Pennsylvania, Ohio State University, University of Bristol, Center Hospitalier Veterinaire Fregis and Florida College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary surgery : VS | Year: 2016

To report the signalment, presenting clinical signs, surgical complications, histologic diagnosis, postoperative complications, and outcome of dogs and cats undergoing pneumonectomy.Retrospective case series; multicenter study.Client-owned dogs (n=17) and cats (n=10).Signalment, clinical signs, side affected, surgical data, preoperative diagnostic tests (including complete blood count, serum biochemistry, cytologic diagnosis, chest radiographs, and computed tomography), histologic diagnosis, surgical complications, adjunctive therapy, and date and cause of death were collected from records of dogs and cats that underwent pneumonectomy. Survival estimates and complication were assessed.Seventeen animals had a left-sided pneumonectomy performed (12 dogs, 5 cats) and 10 animals had a right-sided pneumonectomy (5 dogs, 5 cats). Fourteen animals were diagnosed with neoplasia (52%). The overall incidence of complications for dogs and cats were 76 and 80%, respectively, with major complications in 41 and 50%, respectively. Respiratory complications (persistent pleural effusion, oxygen dependence, persistent increased respiratory rate, or coughing) were the most frequent complications. No animals died or were euthanatized intraoperative or within the first 24 hours postoperative. One dog (6%) and 2 cats (20%) died, or were euthanatized in the first 2 weeks postoperative.Based on this case series, right and left pneumonectomy can be performed with low perioperative mortality in dogs and cats, with some animals experiencing prolonged survival.


PubMed | Chungnam National University and Center Hospitalier Veterinaire Fregis
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary surgery : VS | Year: 2016

To investigate the feasibility of medial meniscal release (MMR) during stifle arthroscopy in toy breed dogs with and without a joint distractor.Experimental cadaveric study.Stifles (n=40) from 20 canine cadavers (1.8-5.1 kg).Paired stifles were randomly assigned to the joint distractor group and the control group (n=20 each). All stifles underwent arthroscopic transection of the cranial cruciate ligament followed by a release of the caudomedial meniscotibial ligament. After the procedures, all stifles were disarticulated. The degree of released meniscus was recorded subjectively by 5% increments. A MMR success was defined as a complete transection. The areas of femoral and tibial articular cartilage damage were calculated using india ink staining and digital imaging. The results were compared between groups and odds ratios were calculated.All stifle arthroscopies were successful. The success rate of MMR was significantly higher (P = .013) with a joint distractor than without a joint distractor. MMR was 7.4 times more likely to succeed with a joint distractor than without a joint distractor. The distal femoral articular cartilage was significantly more damaged (P=.011) in the stifles without a joint distractor than in the stifles with a distractor. No difference was found between the 2 groups for damage to the tibial cartilage (P=.058).Stifle arthroscopic MMR is feasible in toy breed dogs. Using a joint distractor is recommended for arthroscopic treatment based on our results because it significantly reduced the rate of incomplete release as well as iatrogenic cartilage damage.


Gibert S.,Center Hospitalier Veterinaire Fregis | Kowaleski M.P.,Tufts University | Matthys R.,RISystem AG | Nutzi R.,RISystem AG | And 2 more authors.
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology | Year: 2016

Objective: To compare a locking plate (LP) with pin and tension-band wire (pin/TBW) for fixation of mid-patellar transverse fractures. Materials and methods: Cadaveric canine stifle joints from 10 adult mixed breed dogs (23-36 kg) were used. Mid-patellar transverse osteotomies were randomly stabilized (in pairs) with either pin/TBW or a prototype LP. Cyclic loads (1 Hz, 500 cycles) at 100% body weight (90°-135° stifle joint extension), were applied. Survival or failure of constructs was defined as <2 mm fracture gap distraction at 500 cycles, or >2 mm fracture gap distraction at the number of cycles sustained, respectively. Number of cycles at failure and distraction gap were compared with a paired Student's t-test, and a survival analysis performed with a Mantel-Cox test. All constructs that survived cyclic testing were tested in single cycle load to failure (1.0 mm/sec; 110° stifle joint extension); yield strength was compared with a Wilcoxon rank sum test. Significance was set at p <0.05. Results: All 10/10 LP and three out of 10 pin/ TBW fixations survived cyclic testing. Survival analysis, number of cycles at failure, and distraction gap all were significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.0011, p = 0.0013, and p <0.0001, respectively). Construct yield strength was not significantly different (p = 0.1273). Conclusions: The failure mode with pin/TBW was consistently similar to failures observed clinically. The LP demonstrated consistent, reliable and stable fixation. © Schattauer 2016.


Gibert S.,Center Hospitalier Veterinaire Fregis | Ragetly G.R.,Center Hospitalier Veterinaire Fregis | Boudrieau R.J.,Tufts University
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology | Year: 2015

Objective: To evaluate retrospectively the effectiveness of the Locking Compression Plate® (LCP), in the form of either a straight or notched head T-plate, for the treatment of fractures of the distal radius and ulna in a series of 20 toy and miniature breed dogs. Methods: The medical records of toy and miniature breed dogs (<6 kg), greater than six months of age, with fractures of the distal radius and ulna from two veterinary hospitals were reviewed. The inclusion criteria included: fractures of the distal 1/3 of the radius and ulna and repair with open reduction and internal fixation utilizing an LCP (straight or notched head T-plate). Results: Twenty fractures (20 dogs) satisfied the inclusion criteria; eight straight and 12 notched head T-plates were used, either 2.0 mm (n = 13) or 2.4 mm (n = 7). Hybrid fixation was performed in all dogs in one or both fragments. Mean time to radiographic union was 6.9 ± 2.5 weeks (range: 4–12weeks) in 18/20 dogs with radiographic follow-up. One complication was observed: infection that resolved with antibiotic medication and implant removal. No other major complications occurred by the time of last follow-up. In all cases (mean follow-up: 15 ± 7 months), the reported limb function as evaluated by the referring veterinarian or owner was excellent. Clinical significance: The LCP, used as a hybrid construct for the treatment of distal radial and ulnar fractures was shown to yield excellent clinical results with both uncomplicated healing and excellent functional outcomes in this series of toy and miniature breed dogs. © Schattauer 2015.


Sabater M.,Great Western Exotics | Huynh M.,Center Hospitalier Veterinaire Fregis | Forbes N.,Great Western Exotics
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery | Year: 2015

A 23-year-old male tawny eagle (Aquila rapax) was examined because of sudden onset of lethargy, regurgitation, and hematochezia. An intestinal obstruction was suspected based on radiographic findings, and an ileo-ceco-rectal intussusception was confirmed by coelioscopy. A 14.3-cm section of intestine was resected before an intestinal anastomosis was done. Coelomic endoscopic examination confirmed a postsurgical complication of adhesions between the intestinal anastomosis and the dorsal coelomic wall, resulting in a partial luminal stricture and requiring surgical removal of the adhesions. Rectoscopy was useful in diagnosing a mild luminal stricture related to the second surgery. Complete recovery was observed 2 months after surgery. Lack of further complications in the 2 years after surgery demonstrates good tolerance of intestinal resection and anastomosis of a large segment of bowel in an eagle. This report is the first reported case of intussusception in an eagle and emphasizes the potential use of endoscopic examination in the diagnosis as well as in the management of complications. © 2015 by the Association of Avian Veterinarians.


Huynh M.,Center Hospitalier Veterinaire Fregis | Guillaumot P.,Clinique Veterinaire Olliolis | Hernandez J.,Center Hospitalier Veterinaire Fregis | Ragetly G.,Center Hospitalier Veterinaire Fregis
Journal of Small Animal Practice | Year: 2014

A six-year-old neutered female albino ferret was presented with an acute episode of lethargy and anorexia. Clinical examination revealed marked cranial abdominal pain. A severe neutrophilic leukocytosis was present. Abdominal ultrasound was consistent with a diffuse peritonitis and severe bile duct inflammation. Cytology of the abdominal effusion revealed bile peritonitis. An exploratory laparotomy was performed and the gall bladder appeared inflamed with multiple perforations. A cholecystectomy was performed. The ferret recovered without complication. Bacteriological culture of the bile and gall bladder yielded a pure growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Histopathological analysis of the gall bladder and liver was consistent with a marked cholecystitis and cholangiohepatitis. On the basis of sensitivity testing, the ferret was treated with marbofloxacin for one month. No complications or reoccurrence were seen up to 1year after the diagnosis. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of bile peritonitis secondary to gall bladder rupture in a ferret. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.


PubMed | Center Hospitalier Veterinaire Fregis
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary and comparative orthopaedics and traumatology : V.C.O.T | Year: 2016

Our objectives were: 1) to review the complications associated with stabilization of appendicular fractures in cats and small dogs using locking compression plates (LCP), and 2) to identify factors that could influence fixation construct stability.Retrospective clinical study.Medical and radiographic records of cats and small dogs with appendicular fractures treated with LCP were reviewed. Only cases with adequate follow-up to document clinical union and cases for which complications appeared before the clinical union were included.Complications were classified as implant-related complications or other complications. Cases with implant-related complications were compared to cases with non-implant-related complications for differences in signalment (species, age, body weight, multiple fractures), fracture location and type (fractured bone, fracture localization, closed or open fracture), reduction method (open reduction and internal fixation [ORIF] or minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis [MIPO]) and fixation evaluations (implant size, plate-bridging ratio, plate span ratio, working length, plate screw density, number of screws and cortices engaged per plate and per main fragment, ratio between screw and bone diameter at the narrowest aspect of the bone, and presence of ancillary fixation).Seventy-five fractures from 63 cats (64 fractures) and 10 dogs (11 fractures) met the inclusion criteria. Eight humeral, 13 radio-ulnar, 26 femoral, and 28 tibio-fibular fractures were treated. Primary repair of the fracture was performed using 2.0 mm and 2.4 mm LCP in 22 and 53 fractures, respectively. Overall and implant-related complications were encountered in 13 and seven of 75 fractures, respectively. Fixation failure was not significantly associated with any aforementioned factor considered in this study, and in particular, there was no significant difference in the occurrence of fixation failure between fractures stabilized with two, or more than two, bicortical locking screws per main fragment.2.0 mm and 2.4 mm LCP were used to manage appendicular fractures in cats and small dogs. The overall complication and fixation failure rate were comparable to those reported in previous studies in which various locking plate systems were used.


PubMed | Center Hospitalier Veterinaire Fregis
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: Veterinary and comparative orthopaedics and traumatology : V.C.O.T | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a Veress needle as a fluid egress system for stifle arthroscopy in toy dog breeds.Cadaveric canine stifle joints (n = 32) were prepared to induce an artificial intra-articular haemorrhagic effect, followed by stifle arthroscopy. The stifles were randomly assigned to one of three groups, and a fluid egress portal was established using a Veress needle (VN), a standard egress cannula (SE), or an intravenous catheter stylet (CS). Time to establish the egress portal, arthroscopic visibility, and egress portal performance were evaluated during the arthroscopy. After the arthroscopic examinations, iatrogenic cartilage lesions were identified and analysed using the percentage area of cartilage damage (%ACD).The overall arthroscopic visibility and egress portal performance were not significantly different among the groups. The egress portal establishment was faster for the VN (33 sec) and the CS (34 sec) groups than for the SE (43 sec) group (p = 0.001). On gross joint examination, no iatrogenic laceration was found in the VN group, whereas four out of 10 of the SE and two out of 10 of the CS specimens had linear cartilage excoriation on the stifle joints. The %ACD score of the VN group was lower than those of the SE group (p = 0.009) and the CS group (p = 0.001).The Veress needle method used in this study was useful to establish a fluid egress system and limit iatrogenic cartilage excoriations. This technique could become the method of choice for stifle arthroscopy, especially in smaller dogs.

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