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Benlloch-Gonzalez M.,Stockholms Regional Small Animal Hospital Bagarmossen | Grapperon-Mathis M.,Stockholms Regional Small Animal Hospital Bagarmossen | Bouvy B.,Center Hospitalier Veterinaire Fregis
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology | Year: 2014

Objective: Describe optimal corridors for mediolateral or lateromedial implant placement in the feline tarsus and base of the metatarsus.Methods: Computed tomographic images of 20 cadaveric tarsi were used to define optimal talocalcaneal, centroquartal, distal tarsal, and metatarsal corridors characterized by medial and lateral insertion points (IP), mean height, width, length and optimal dorso - medial-plantarolateral implantation angle (OIA).Results: Talocalcaneal level: The IP were at the head of the talus and plantar to the peroneal tubercle of the calcaneus and OIA was 22.7° ± 0.3. Centroquartal level: The IP were at the centre of the medial surface of the central tarsal bone and dorsoproximal to the tuberosity of the fourth tarsal bone and OIA was 5.9° ± 0.06. Distal tarsal level: The IP were at the centre of the medial surface of the tarsal bone II and dorsodistal to the tuberosity of the fourth tarsal bone and OIA was 5.4° ± 0.14. Metatarsal level: The IP were at the dorsomedial surface of the proximal end of the metatarsal bone II and at the dorsolateral surface of metatarsal bone V and OIA was 0.5° ± 0.06. Significant positive correlation was found between body weight and the length of each corridor.Clinical significance: Most of the corridors obtained in this study had a diameter between 1.5 mm and 2 mm with a length of 15 mm to 18 mm, which stresses the importance of their accurate placement. © Schattauer 2014.

Huynh M.,Center Hospitalier Veterinaire Fregis | Poumeyrol S.,National Veterinary School of Alfort | Pignon C.,National Veterinary School of Alfort | Le Teuff G.,Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy | Zilberstein L.,National Veterinary School of Alfort
Veterinary Record | Year: 2015

Alfaxalone is a neuroactive steroid derivative of pregnanedione that was recently reintroduced to the market for use as an induction agent in small animal anaesthesia. The aim of this study was to determine an intramuscular alfaxalone dose for safe immobilisation. Ten healthy New Zealand white rabbits were used to evaluate a single intramuscular injection of alfaxalone. The design of the study was a three-way, complete block, cross-over trial to compare the effect of alfaxalone at three doses (4, 6 and 8 mg). The mean duration of the effect for the 4, 6 and 8 mg/kg doses was, respectively, 36.9 (95% CI (31.6 to 42.3)), 51.8 (46.4 to 57.2) and 58.4 (52.8 to 63.9) minutes. The loss of the righting reflex was achieved after 3.1 (2.5 to 3.8), 2.4 (1.7 to 3.1) and 2.3 (1.6 to 2.9) minutes, respectively. The mean duration of the effect for the 6 and 8 mg doses was significantly higher than for the 4 mg dose (with estimated differences of 14.8 95% CI (8.8 to 20.8) minutes and 21.4 (15.3 to 27.6) minutes, respectively). No significant dose effect was observed before the loss of the righting reflex (P=0.14). Ear pinching and limb withdrawal were elicited in all groups at every dose. Doses of 4 or 6 mg/kg could be recommended; higher doses do not provide clinical benefits and can be associated with anaesthetic complication.

Sabater M.,Great Western Exotics | Huynh M.,Center Hospitalier Veterinaire Fregis | Forbes N.,Great Western Exotics
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery | Year: 2015

A 23-year-old male tawny eagle (Aquila rapax) was examined because of sudden onset of lethargy, regurgitation, and hematochezia. An intestinal obstruction was suspected based on radiographic findings, and an ileo-ceco-rectal intussusception was confirmed by coelioscopy. A 14.3-cm section of intestine was resected before an intestinal anastomosis was done. Coelomic endoscopic examination confirmed a postsurgical complication of adhesions between the intestinal anastomosis and the dorsal coelomic wall, resulting in a partial luminal stricture and requiring surgical removal of the adhesions. Rectoscopy was useful in diagnosing a mild luminal stricture related to the second surgery. Complete recovery was observed 2 months after surgery. Lack of further complications in the 2 years after surgery demonstrates good tolerance of intestinal resection and anastomosis of a large segment of bowel in an eagle. This report is the first reported case of intussusception in an eagle and emphasizes the potential use of endoscopic examination in the diagnosis as well as in the management of complications. © 2015 by the Association of Avian Veterinarians.

Huynh M.,Center Hospitalier Veterinaire Fregis | Carnaccini S.,University of California at Davis | Driggers T.,Avian and Exotic Animal Clinic of Arizona | Shivaprasad H.L.,University of California at Davis
Avian Diseases | Year: 2014

An 18-yr-old male hyacinth macaw (Anadorhynchus hyacinthinus) was found dead in his aviary with no preexisting signs. The bird had a chronic history of feather damaging behavior, with severe ulcerative dermatitis. Pathologic findings revealed a vegetative valvular endocarditis, myocarditis, septicemia, chronic severe glomerulonephritis, and thyroid dysplasia. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the valve, the liver, and the skin. Repeated trauma and low-rate bacteriemia may have contributed to the development of endocarditis. Translocation of S. aureus skin infection in the bloodstream may lead to subacute endocarditis in humans and such mechanism is suspected in this case. This case suggests that endocarditis associated with S. aureus septicemia is a potential complication of feather damaging behavior. This case also reports a systemic complication of ulcerative dermatitis secondary to feather damaging behavior. Endocarditis has been poorly reported in psittacine species, and such medical complication of feather damaging behavior has never been reported to our knowledge. Furthermore, S. aureus is a bacteria of public health concern and should be integrated into the differential when pet parrots with dermatitis are in proximity to owners. © American Association of Avian Pathologists.

Pignon C.,National Veterinary School of Alfort | Huynh M.,Center Hospitalier Veterinaire Fregis | Husnik R.,Louisiana State University | Husnik R.,St Annes University Hospital Brno | Jekl V.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno
Veterinary Clinics of North America - Exotic Animal Practice | Year: 2015

Gastrointestinal disease is a common complaint in ferrets (. Mustela putorius furo). Their relatively simple and short gastrointestinal tract makes them good candidates for flexible endoscopy. However, apart from a few references in biomedical research articles, there is little information on the use of flexible endoscopy in ferrets. This review describes patient preparation, equipment, and select gastrointestinal endoscopy techniques in ferrets, including esophagoscopy, gastroscopy, duodenoscopy, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, jejunoileoscopy, colonoscopy, and biopsy. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

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