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Abergel A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Asselah T.,University Paris Diderot | Asselah T.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Metivier S.,Center Hospitalier University Purpan | And 6 more authors.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

Background: Data about the response of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 5 to approved and experimental treatment regimens are scarce. We assessed the efficacy and safety of combination therapy with the NS5A inhibitor ledipasvir and the NS5B polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir in patients with HCV genotype 5. Methods: We did this open-label, multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 trial at five hospitals in France. Eligible patients were at least 18 years old and had chronic infection with HCV genotype 5, with plasma HCV RNA of at least 10 000 IU/mL. We used BLAST analyses of NS5B partial sequences to establish the genotype and subtype at screening. Patients were given a fixed-dose combination tablet of 90 mg ledipasvir and 400 mg sofosbuvir orally once per day for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a sustained viral response, defined as HCV RNA concentration less than 15 IU/mL at 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12). We analysed efficacy and safety in all patients who received at least one dose of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir. This trial is registered with EudraCT, number 2013-003978-27, and with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02081079. Findings: From March 7 to June 10, 2014, we recruited 41 patients, including 21 who were treatment naive and 20 who were treatment experienced. All patients were of white ethnic origins. All 41 patients who started treatment completed the full 12 weeks of treatment and had undetectable HCV RNA at their final treatment visit. In the overall study population, 39 (95%, 95% CI 83-99) of 41 patients achieved SVR12. SVR12 was achieved by 20 (95%, 76-100) of the 21 patients who were treatment naive and 19 (95%, 75-100) of the 20 patients who were treatment experienced. Eight (89%) of nine patients with cirrhosis achieved SVR12, whereas 31 (97%) of the 32 patients without cirrhosis achieved SVR12. The two patients who did not reach SVR12 both had IL28B TT genotype and had viral relapse within 4 weeks of the end of treatment. The most common adverse events were asthenia (16 [39%] patients), headache (11 [27%] patients), and fatigue (four [10%] patients). One patient had a serious adverse event, worsening depression, which we judged to be unrelated to study treatment. Interpretation: The oral regimen of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for patients with HCV genotype 5 infection who are treatment naive or treatment experienced. Funding: Gilead Sciences. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Fenaux P.,Service Route | Giagounidis A.,St. Johannes Hospital | Selleslag D.,AZ St Jan Bruges AV | Beyne-Rauzy O.,Center Hospitalier University Purpan | And 20 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2011

This phase 3, randomized, double-blind study assessed the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide in 205 red blood cell (RBC) transfusion-dependent patients with International Prognostic Scoring System Low-/ Intermediate-1-risk del5q31 myelodysplastic syndromes. Patients received lenalidomide 10 mg/day on days 1-21 (n = 69) or 5 mg/day on days 1-28 (n = 69) of 28-day cycles; or placebo (n = 67). Crossover to lenalidomide or higher dose was allowed after 16 weeks. More patients in the lenalidomide 10- and 5-mg groups achieved RBC-transfusion independence (TI) for ≥ 26 weeks (primary endpoint) versus placebo (56.1% and 42.6% vs 5.9%; both P < .001). Median duration of RBC-TI was not reached (median follow-up, 1.55 years), with 60% to 67% of responses ongoing in patients without progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Cytogenetic response rates were 50.0% (10 mg) versus 25.0% (5 mg; P = .066). For the lenalidomide groups combined, 3-year overall survival and AML risk were 56.5% and 25.1%, respectively. RBC-TI for ≥ 8 weeks was associated with 47% and 42% reductions in the relative risks of death and AML progression or death, respectively (P = .021 and .048). The safety profile was consistent with previous reports. Lenalidomide is beneficial and has an acceptable safety profile in transfusion-dependent patients with Low-/Intermediate-1-risk del5q myelodysplastic syndrome. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00179621. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology.

Mitha A.,Neonatal Unit Hopital Jeanne Of Flandre | Mitha A.,National Health Research Institute | Mitha A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Foix-L'Helias L.,National Health Research Institute | And 23 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether neonatal infections are associated with a higher risk of adverse neurodevelopment at 5 years of age in a population-based cohort of very preterm children. METHODS: We included all live births between 22 and 32 weeks of gestation, from 9 regions in France, in 1997 (EPIPAGE study). Of the 2665 live births, 2277 were eligible for a follow-up evaluation at 5 years of age: 1769 had a medical examination and 1495 underwent cognitive assessment. Cerebral palsy and cognitive impairment were studied as a function of early-onset sepsis (EOS) and late-onset sepsis (LOS), after adjustment for potential confounding factors, in multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: A total of 139 (5%) of the 2665 live births included in the study presented with EOS alone (without associated LOS), 752 (28%) had LOS alone (without associated EOS), and 64 (2%) displayed both EOS and LOS. At 5 years of age, the frequency of cerebral palsy was 9% (157 of 1769) and that of cognitive impairment was 12% (177 of 1495). The frequency of cerebral palsy was higher in infants with isolated EOS (odds ratio [OR]: 1.70 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8423.45]) or isolated LOS (OR: 1.71 [95% CI: 1.1422.56]) than in uninfected infants, and this risk was even higher in cases of combined EOS and LOS (OR: 2.33 [95% CI: 1.0225.33]). There was no association between neonatal infection and cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal infections in these very preterm infants were associated with a higher risk of cerebral palsy at the age of 5 years, particularly in infants presenting with both EOS and LOS. Copyright © 2013 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. © 2013 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Capuani C.,Center Hospitalier University Purpan | Capuani C.,Toulouse University Hospital Center | Meggetto F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Duga I.,Center Hospitalier University Purpan | And 5 more authors.
Placenta | Year: 2013

Introduction: Chronic histiocytic intervillositis of unknown etiology (CIUE) is a rare placental lesion characterized by an intervillous mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate of maternal origin. Although the mechanism and origin of these lesions are currently not understood, they appear to be related to an immune conflict between mother and fetus cells. Aim: To clarify the inflammatory cell profile and evaluate the T regulatory lymphocyte (Treg) status in CIUE. Materials and methods: All cases of CIUE that occurred over an 8-year period were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Results: The inflammatory profile of CIUE was characterized by a clearly predominant component of histiocytic cells (80% ± 6.9) associated with some T cells (24% ± 5.7). The ratio of CD4+ versus CD8+ T cells was close to 1. This profile differs from infectious disease and chronic histiocytic villitis, the main differential diagnoses of CIUE. As for normal pregnancies most regulatory T cells were localized in the decidua basalis. Nevertheless, their appearance was also noted in the intervillous space. In both the intervillous space and the deciduas the number of Tregs gradually increased from grade 1 to 3. Conclusion: We found that CIUE is associated with an increase in Treg lymphocytes in the decidua basalis and the intervillous space. Contrary to previously published data on human miscarriage, this result appears to be specific to CIUE and would support the hypothesis of an immunopathological disorder for CIUE. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Desjobert C.,University Paul Sabatier | Renalier M.-H.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Renalier M.-H.,University Paul Sabatier | Bergalet J.,University Paul Sabatier | And 12 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2011

Although deregulated expression of specific microRNAs (miRNAs) has been described in solid cancers and leukemias, little evidence of miRNA deregulation has been reported in ALK-positive (ALK+) anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL). These tumors overexpress the major antiapoptotic protein myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL-1), a situation that could compensate for the lack of BCL-2. We report that ALK+ ALCL cell lines and biopsy specimens (n = 20) express a low level of miR-29a and that this down-modulation requires an active NPM-ALK kinase. Murine models (transgenic mice and mouse embryonic fibroblast [MEF] cells), which allow conditional NPM-ALK fusion protein expression, showed an increase of miR-29a expression in the absence of NPMALK. Concordant results were observed after the abolition of NPM-ALK kinase activity (siALK or PF-2341066) in NPM-ALK+ ALCL cell lines. In addition, we showed that low expression of miR-29a, probably through methylation repression, plays an important regulatory role inMCL-1overexpression that could promote tumor cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis. Enforced miR-29a expression was found to modulate apoptosis through inhibition of MCL-1 expression in ALCL cell lines and in a xenografted model, with a concomitant tumor growth reduction. Thus, synthetic miR-29a represents a potential new tool to affect tumorigenesis in these lymphomas. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology.

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