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Gaye P.M.,Center hospitalier University Le Dantec | Mesbah L.,University Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah | Kanouni L.,University Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah | Benjaafar N.,University Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah | El Gueddari B.K.,University Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah
Journal Africain du Cancer | Year: 2010

Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) or olfactive neuroblastoma is a rare tumor of the olfactive neuroepithelium of the third superior of the nasal septum, the cribriforme blade and superior cornets. The treatment widely accepted in the literature stays the previous craniofacial resection followed by a postoperative radiotherapy (RT) for locally extended stage with a good local control of the disease. We report series of 12 patients treated to the National institute of oncology of Rabat to Morocco with review of literature. The treatment consisted of a surgery by maxillectomy followed by postoperative RT for an average period (delay) of one month for 58% of the patients. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (platinium-based) was administered to 50% of the patients. The compliance was not good during the systemic treatment. The median time to progression was of six months (1-12 months). Three patients were lost of sight without controlled disease in 5 and 14 months respectively. The local relapse was observed for two patients (16%). No node or distant failure was noted in 44 months. The weak number of patients included in our series and the relatively insufficient follow-up does not authorize specific recommendations. There is a need for standard treatment for ENB. © Springer-Verlag France 2010. Source

Jennes W.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Verheyden S.,Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel Brussel | Mertens J.W.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Camara M.,Center hospitalier University Le Dantec | And 6 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2013

Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) regulate natural killer (NK) cells in a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-dependent manner. KIR/HLA mismatched hematopoietic stem cell transplants induce alloreactive NK cells, which prevent leukemia relapse. Certain KIR/HLA combinations protect against HIV-1 infection, but the effect of KIR/HLA mismatches between sexual partners has never been investigated. In this study, we analyzed the effect of allogeneic KIR/HLA combinations on HIV-1 transmission in aWest African population of HIV-1-discordant and concordant couples. HIV-1-discordant couples were characterized by recipient partners with homozygous KIR2DL2, and by a mismatched recipient partner KIR2DL1/HLA-C2 with index partner HLA-C1/C1 combination expected to allow licensed missing self NK cell killing of index partners' cells. HIV-1-concordant couples on the other hand were characterized by KIR2DL3 homozygous recipient partners with HLA-C1/C2 bearing index partners, resulting in a matched KIR/HLA combination expected to inhibit NK cell killing. In vitro cocultures of healthy donor-derived NK cells and HIV-1 patient-derived CD4 T cells confirmed the involvement of these allogeneic KIR/HLA combinations in NK cell-mediated CD4 T-cell killing. Our data suggest that KIR/HLA incompatibility between sexual partners confers protection against HIV-1 transmission and that this may be due to alloreactive NK cell killing of the HIV-1-infected partner's cells. © 2013 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

Meurs L.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Labuda L.,Leiden University | Labuda L.,Medical Research Unit | Labuda L.,University of Tubingen | And 16 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Schistosoma infection is thought to lead to down-regulation of the host's immune response. This has been shown for adaptive immune responses, but the effect on innate immunity, that initiates and shapes the adaptive response, has not been extensively studied. In a first study to characterize these responses, we investigated the effect of Schistosoma haematobium infection on cytokine responses of Gabonese schoolchildren to a number of Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. Methodology: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from S. haematobium-infected and uninfected schoolchildren from the rural area of Zilé in Gabon. PBMCs were incubated for 24 h and 72 h with various TLR ligands, as well as schistosomal egg antigen (SEA) and adult worm antigen (AWA). Pro-inflammatory TNF-α and anti-inflammatory/regulatory IL-10 cytokine concentrations were determined in culture supernatants. Principal Findings: Infected children produced higher adaptive IL-10 responses than uninfected children against schistosomal antigens (72 h incubation). On the other hand, infected children had higher TNF-α responses than uninfected children and significantly higher TNF-α to IL-10 ratios in response to FSL-1 and Pam3, ligands of TLR2/6 and TLR2/1 respectively. A similar trend was observed for the TLR4 ligand LPS while Poly(I:C) (Mda5/TLR3 ligand) did not induce substantial cytokine responses (24 h incubation). Conclusions: This pilot study shows that Schistosoma-infected children develop a more pro-inflammatory TLR2-mediated response in the face of a more anti-inflammatory adaptive immune response. This suggests that S. haematobium infection does not suppress the host's innate immune system in the context of single TLR ligation. © 2011 Meurs et al. Source

Meurs L.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Mbow M.,Center hospitalier University Le Dantec | Vereecken K.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Menten J.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | And 2 more authors.
International Journal for Parasitology | Year: 2012

Due to the large overlap of Schistosoma mansoni- and Schistosoma haematobium-endemic regions in Africa, many people are at risk of co-infection, with potential adverse effects on schistosomiasis morbidity and control. Nonetheless, studies on the distribution and determinants of mixed Schistosoma infections have to date been rare. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in two communities in northern Senegal (n=857) to obtain further insight into the epidemiology of mixed infections and ectopic egg elimination. Overall prevalences of S. mansoni and S. haematobium infection were 61% and 50%, respectively, in these communities. Among infected subjects, 53% had mixed infections and 8% demonstrated ectopic egg elimination. Risk factors for mixed infection - i.e. gender, community of residence and age - were not different from what is generally seen in Schistosoma-endemic areas. Similar to overall S. mansoni and S. haematobium infections, age-related patterns of mixed infections showed the characteristic convex-shaped curve for schistosomiasis, with a rapid increase in children, a peak in adolescents and a decline in adults. Looking at the data in more detail however, the decline in overall S. haematobium infection prevalences and intensities appeared to be steeper than for S. mansoni, resulting in a decrease in mixed infections and a relative increase in single S. mansoni infections with age. Moreover, individuals with mixed infections had higher infection intensities of both S. mansoni and S. haematobium than those with single infections, especially those with ectopic egg elimination (P<0.05). High infection intensities in mixed infections, as well as age-related differences in infection patterns between S. mansoni and S. haematobium, may influence disease epidemiology and control considerably, and merit further studies into the underlying mechanisms of Schistosoma infections in co-endemic areas. © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc.. Source

Ndiaye B.P.,Center hospitalier University Le Dantec | Thienemann F.,University of Cape Town | Ota M.,Medical Research Council Unit | Landry B.S.,Aeras | And 22 more authors.
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: HIV-1 infection is associated with increased risk of tuberculosis and a safe and effective vaccine would assist control measures. We assessed the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of a candidate tuberculosis vaccine, modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing antigen 85A (MVA85A), in adults infected with HIV-1. Methods: We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial of MVA85A in adults infected with HIV-1, at two clinical sites, in Cape Town, South Africa and Dakar, Senegal. Eligible participants were aged 18-50 years, had no evidence of active tuberculosis, and had baseline CD4 counts greater than 350 cells per μL if they had never received antiretroviral therapy or greater than 300 cells per μL (and with undetectable viral load before randomisation) if they were receiving antiretroviral therapy; participants with latent tuberculosis infection were eligible if they had completed at least 5 months of isoniazid preventive therapy, unless they had completed treatment for tuberculosis disease within 3 years before randomisation. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) in blocks of four by randomly generated sequence to receive two intradermal injections of either MVA85A or placebo. Randomisation was stratified by antiretroviral therapy status and study site. Participants, nurses, investigators, and laboratory staff were masked to group allocation. The second (booster) injection of MVA85A or placebo was given 6-12 months after the first vaccination. The primary study outcome was safety in all vaccinated participants (the safety analysis population). Safety was assessed throughout the trial as defined in the protocol. Secondary outcomes were immunogenicity and vaccine efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease, assessed in the per-protocol population. Immunogenicity was assessed in a subset of participants at day 7 and day 28 after the first and second vaccination, and M tuberculosis infection and disease were assessed at the end of the study. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01151189. Findings: Between Aug 4, 2011, and April 24, 2013, 650 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned; 649 were included in the safety analysis (324 in the MVA85A group and 325 in the placebo group) and 645 in the per-protocol analysis (320 and 325). 513 (71%) participants had CD4 counts greater than 300 cells per μL and were receiving antiretroviral therapy; 136 (21%) had CD4 counts above 350 cells per μL and had never received antiretroviral therapy. 277 (43%) had received isoniazid prophylaxis before enrolment. Solicited adverse events were more frequent in participants who received MVA85A (288 [89%]) than in those given placebo (235 [72%]). 34 serious adverse events were reported, 17 (5%) in each group. MVA85A induced a significant increase in antigen 85A-specific T-cell response, which peaked 7 days after both vaccinations and was primarily monofunctional. The number of participants with negative QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube findings at baseline who converted to positive by the end of the study was 38 (20%) of 186 in the MVA85A group and 40 (23%) of 173 in the placebo group, for a vaccine efficacy of 11·7% (95% CI -41·3 to 44·9). In the per-protocol population, six (2%) cases of tuberculosis disease occurred in the MVA85A group and nine (3%) occurred in the placebo group, for a vaccine efficacy of 32·8% (95% CI -111·5 to 80·3). Interpretation: MVA85A was well tolerated and immunogenic in adults infected with HIV-1. However, we detected no efficacy against M tuberculosis infection or disease, although the study was underpowered to detect an effect against disease. Potential reasons for the absence of detectable efficacy in this trial include insufficient induction of a vaccine-induced immune response or the wrong type of vaccine-induced immune response, or both. Funding: European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (IP.2007.32080.002), Aeras, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Wellcome Trust, and Oxford-Emergent Tuberculosis Consortium. © 2015 Ndiaye et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY. Source

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