Gandotra S.,University of Cambridge |
Le Dour C.,University Pierre and Marie Curie |
Bottomley W.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute |
Cervera P.,University Pierre and Marie Curie |
And 17 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011
Perilipin is the most abundant adipocyte-specific protein that coats lipid droplets, and it is required for optimal lipid incorporation and release from the droplet. We identified two heterozygous frameshift mutations in the perilipin gene (PLIN1) in three families with partial lipodystrophy, severe dyslipidemia, and insulin-resistant diabetes. Subcutaneous fat from the patients was characterized by smaller-than-normal adipocytes, macrophage infiltration, and fibrosis. In contrast to wild-type perilipin, mutant forms of the protein failed to increase triglyceride accumulation when expressed heterologously in preadipocytes. These findings define a novel dominant form of inherited lipodystrophy and highlight the serious metabolic consequences of a primary defect in the formation of lipid droplets in adipose tissue. Copyright © 2011 Massachusetts Medical Society.
Riveline J.-P.,Center Hospitalier Sud Francilien |
Riveline J.-P.,University Pierre and Marie Curie
Diabetes and Metabolism | Year: 2011
Are all type 1 diabetes (T1DM) patients potential candidates for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)? Clearly, some patients improve their metabolic control with this tool, such as adults with poor metabolic control, especially those treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), and compliant patients with HbA 1c levels <7%. There are also less good candidates for CGM, such as patients aged 8-18 years because they are reluctant to wear the sensors or those with new-onset T1DM. Other patient groups have not yet been evaluated, such as patients aged <8 years, women during pregnancy, and those with HbA 1c >10% and/or severe hypoglycaemia. Beyond the indications, the mode of use of CGM is crucial. An appropriate patient selection, in order to choose those able to run the tool and motivated to use it, is necessary. How to prescribe the sensors is also an important question. Two approaches have been compared: patient-led and physician-driven prescription. Both modes of using CGM provide similar long-term metabolic improvement. However, physician-driven prescription is probably more cost-effective. The last key question is the education of patients by an experienced team. It can help them to translate the large amount of data from the monitor into effective selfmanagement for optimalizing the CGM experience. However, elaboration of a validated algorithm is necessary to take full advantage of this device. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS.
Charansonney O.L.,Center Hospitalier Sud Francilien |
Despres J.-P.,Laval University
Nature Reviews Cardiology | Year: 2010
Obesity is a major health challenge facing the modern world. Some evidence points to obesity itself as the main driver of premature mortality. We propose that this view is oversimplified. For example, high levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with lower mortality, even in those who are overweight or obese. To address this issue, we combine epidemiological and physiological evidence in a new paradigm that integrates excess calorie intake, sedentary behavior, and a maladaptive response to stress. Human physiology is optimized to allow large distances to be covered on foot every day in order to find enough food to sustain brain metabolism. Furthermore, when the body is immobilized by an injury, it triggers efficient life-saving metabolic and inflammatory responses. Both these critical adaptations are, however, confounded by a sedentary lifestyle. The implications of these issues for clinical trial design and epidemiologic data analysis are discussed in this article. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Charansonney O.L.,Center Hospitalier Sud Francilien
Discovery medicine | Year: 2012
Exercise testing was developed as a diagnostic tool in the first half of the 20th century when people, mostly men, paid the huge cost of coronary artery disease (CAD). Both the changing nature of CAD, which affects both men and women, and the aging of the population led to redefining the use of exercise testing. This test is now mainly used for evaluating overall prognosis. In parallel, new measurement such as exercise capacity and several components of the physiological reserve enrich the information which can be obtained from exercise testing. Therefore, exercise testing has become the major dynamic tool for predicting premature mortality far beyond traditional and disease specific risk markers. The present article reviews the main pieces of information which led to these changes and summarizes the elements which give exercise testing its utility.
Van Bon A.C.,Academic Medical Center Amsterdam |
Bode B.W.,Emory University |
Sert-Langeron C.,Sanofi S.A. |
DeVries J.H.,Academic Medical Center Amsterdam |
Charpentier G.,Center Hospitalier Sud Francilien
Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics | Year: 2011
Background: In a previous pilot study comparing insulin glulisine (GLU) with insulin aspart (ASP) administered by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), GLU-treated patients did show a trend toward fewer catheter occlusions compared with ASP-treated patients. Here we performed a randomized open-label, three-way crossover, controlled multicenter study comparing GLU with ASP and insulin lispro (LIS). Methods: Subjects with type 1 diabetes were allocated to one of three treatment orders-GLU-ASP-LIS, ASP-LIS-GLU, or LIS-GLU-ASP-with each insulin used for 13 weeks. The study was designed to demonstrate the superiority of GLU over ASP and LIS on unexplained hyperglycemia and/or perceived infusion set occlusion. A prespecified P value of 0.025 was considered significant to correct for multiple testing. Results: Percentages of subjects with at least one unexplained hyperglycemia and/or infusion set occlusion were not significantly different between GLU and ASP (68.4% [62.7-74.1%] vs. 62.1% [56.2-68.1%], P = 0.04) and GLU and LIS (68.4% [62.7-74.1%] vs. 61.3% [55.4-67.3%], P = 0.03). No differences were seen in hemoglobin A1c at end point, most points of the seven-point glucose curves, severe hypoglycemia, and symptomatic ketoacidosis. The overall rate of hypoglycemia with a plasma glucose level below 70 mg/dL per patient-year was significantly different between GLU and ASP (73.84 vs. 65.01, P = 0.008) and GLU and LIS (73.84 vs. 62.69, P < 0.001). Insulin doses remained unchanged during the trial. Conclusions: GLU was not superior to ASP and LIS with no significant difference seen among GLU, ASP, and LIS in CSII use with respect to unexplained hyperglycemia and/or perceived catheter set occlusion. GLU was associated with a higher frequency of symptomatic hypoglycemia, possibly because of slight overdosing, as previous trials suggested lower insulin requirements when GLU is initiated in type 1 diabetes. © 2011 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Dugast C.,Center Hospitalier Sud Francilien
Soins Cadres de Sante | Year: 2012
Moving from a notion of administration to a real desire to provide support, human resources departments strive to meet as closely as possible the needs of the institute and the staff with the aim of continuously improving global performance. The institute, by developing a feeling of belonging, HR coordination, its jobs and skills forecast management tools and high-quality, constructive dialogue, constitutes a rich triptych for disseminating social responsibility to all the links of the managerial chain. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS.
Franc S.,Center Hospitalier sud Francilien
Correspondances en MHND | Year: 2016
Telemedical advice: offers that allow the remote interrogation of a doctor from a mobile or web grow rapidely, and they are most often designed to respond to acute problems The National Council of the College of Physicians (CNOM) has just released a report, warning against the "uberisation of healthcare." However most doctors (70 %) deem necessary the integration of digital technology in the organization of care. Many technological tools, either connected or not (apps, etc.), have emerged to facilitate the management of the patient's diabetes, usually without any connection with the caregiver. Telemedicine, which is recognized as a medical procedure per se by the French Medical Council, is the most elaborate form of this integration of digital technology in the organization of care.
Charansonney O.L.,Center Hospitalier Sud Francilien |
Vanhees L.,Catholic University of Leuven |
Cohen-Solal A.,Hopital Lariboisiere
International Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2014
Background Physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF), and even a few sedentary behaviors (SB) are strongly and independently linked to improved survival rate. However, key questions remain: what are the physiological interrelationships between SB, PA, and PF? How should we differently emphasize promoting PA, increasing PF with exercise, and decreasing SB among other prevention measures? What are the interrelationships of both PA and SB levels with drug treatment efficacy? Methods To address these questions we developed an integrated patient-centric model combining physiology with epidemiological evidence to characterize the individual risk attached to PA level, PF, and SB. Epidemiological data were collected by extensive literature review. Results Nine meta-analyses, 198 cohort studies (3.8 million people), and 13 controlled trials were reviewed.A high level of SB induces chronic stress and increases the risk of both chronic disease and mortality.Vigorous PA increases PF and physiological reserve, thereby improving survival rate. This effect is not mediated by improved traditional risk factors. The risk for most individuals is a mix of high SB, low to mild PA, and low to mild PF. This model can improve the individualized prescription of PA modalities. Furthermore, the benefit of treatments such as statins or beta-blockers can be cancelled out if a decrease in PA or an increase in SB is induced by drug related side effects. Conclusions To improve patient management both types of therapeutic interventions and dose should be carefully chosen for each individual in order to maintain/increase PA level while decreasing SB. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Fix M.,Center Hospitalier Sud Francilien
Revue du Praticien | Year: 2013
Court decisions taking away someone's freedom by requiring them to serve a jail sentence should not deny them access to the same health care available to free citizens in full compliance with patient confidentiality. Health institutions, responsible for administering somatic care, offer a comprehensive response to the medical needs of those under justice control, both in jails and conventional care units. For a physician, working In the correctional setting implies accepting its constraints, and violence, and protecting and enforcing fundamental rights, as well as rights to dignity, confidential care and freedom to accept or refuse a treatment.
D'Hubert E.,Center Hospitalier Sud Francilien
Journal of visceral surgery | Year: 2010
Physicians in France have been asked to change their day-to-day medical practice to reduce overall costs. We examine ways to achieve this goal in thyroid surgery. We defined and implemented a clinical pathway to optimize the economic viability of thyroid surgery by increasing revenues and lowering expenses. An increase in revenue was achieved by decreasing patient length of stay (LOS) through the use of a fast-track rehabilitation protocol. Expenses were decreased by performing all pre-operative work-up in the out-patient setting and by decreasing costs in the operating room. For 292 consecutive patients who underwent thyroidectomy, the average LOS has been decreased over time to a mean of 2.03 days in 2008; 96% of patients were discharged on the first postoperative day. These results were primarily achieved by using a fast-track rehabilitation clinical pathway, and no increase in postoperative morbidity was noted. Operating time was decreased by 20% through the use of a second surgical assistant and hemostatic scissors but this improvement did not translate into better daily utilization of the operating room. The economic profitability of thyroid surgery is improved when mean LOS is reduced to 2 days through a fast-track protocol. Decreasing the duration of hospitalization was more effective than decreasing operative duration in controlling overall costs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.