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Akopova I.,University of North Texas | Tatur S.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal Crchum Hotel Dieu | Grygorczyk M.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal Crchum Hotel Dieu | Luchowski R.,University of North Texas | And 6 more authors.
Purinergic Signalling | Year: 2012

Nucleotide release constitutes the first step of the purinergic signaling cascade, but its underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. In alveolar A549 cells much of the experimental data is consistent with Ca 2+-regulated vesicular exocytosis, but definitive evidence for such a release mechanism is missing, and alternative pathways have been proposed. In this study, we examined ATP secretion from A549 cells by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to directly visualize ATP-loaded vesicles and their fusion with the plasma membrane. A549 cells were labeled with quinacrine or Bodipy-ATP, fluorescent markers of intracellular ATP storage sites, and time-lapse imaging of vesicles present in the evanescent field was undertaken. Under basal conditions, individual vesicles showed occasional quasi-instantaneous loss of fluorescence, as expected from spontaneous vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane and dispersal of its fluorescent cargo. Hypo-osmotic stress stimulation (osmolality reduction from 316 to 160 mOsm) resulted in a transient, several-fold increment of exocytotic event frequency. Lowering the temperature from 37°C to 20°C dramatically diminished the fraction of vesicles that underwent exocytosis during the 2-min stimulation, from ~40% to ≤1%, respectively. Parallel ATP efflux experiments with luciferase bioluminescence assay revealed that pharmacological interference with vesicular transport (brefeldin, monensin), or disruption of the cytoskeleton (nocodazole, cytochalasin), significantly suppressed ATP release (by up to ~80%), whereas it was completely blocked by N-ethylmaleimide. Collectively, our data demonstrate that regulated exocytosis of ATP-loaded vesicles likely constitutes a major pathway of hypotonic stress-induced ATP secretion from A549 cells. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Racine M.,University of Quebec at Montreal | Racine M.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal Crchum Hotel Dieu | Tousignant-Laflamme Y.,Universite de Sherbrooke | Kloda L.A.,McGill University | And 5 more authors.
Pain | Year: 2012

The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize and critically appraise the results of 10 years of human laboratory research on pain and sex/gender. An electronic search strategy was designed by a medical librarian and conducted in multiple databases. A total of 172 articles published between 1998 and 2008 were retrieved, analyzed, and synthesized. The first set of results (122 articles), which is presented in this paper, examined sex difference in the perception of laboratory-induced thermal, pressure, ischemic, muscle, electrical, chemical, and visceral pain in healthy subjects. This review suggests that females (F) and males (M) have comparable thresholds for cold and ischemic pain, while pressure pain thresholds are lower in F than M. There is strong evidence that F tolerate less thermal (heat, cold) and pressure pain than M but it is not the case for tolerance to ischemic pain, which is comparable in both sexes. The majority of the studies that measured pain intensity and unpleasantness showed no sex difference in many pain modalities. In summary, 10 years of laboratory research have not been successful in producing a clear and consistent pattern of sex differences in human pain sensitivity, even with the use of deep, tonic, long-lasting stimuli, which are known to better mimic clinical pain. Whether laboratory studies in healthy subjects are the best paradigm to investigate sex differences in pain perception is open to question and should be discussed with a view to enhancing the clinical relevance of these experiments and developing new research avenues. © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Racine M.,University of Quebec at Montreal | Racine M.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal Crchum Hotel Dieu | Tousignant-Laflamme Y.,Universite de Sherbrooke | Kloda L.A.,McGill University | And 5 more authors.
Pain | Year: 2012

This systematic review summarizes the results of 10 years of laboratory research on pain and sex/gender. An electronic search strategy was designed by a medical librarian to access multiple databases. A total of 172 articles published between 1998 and 2008 were retrieved, analyzed, and synthesized. The second set of results presented in this review (129 articles) examined various biopsychosocial factors that may contribute to differences in pain sensitivity between healthy women and men. The results revealed that the involvement of hormonal and physiological factors is either inconsistent or absent. Some studies suggest that temporal summation, allodynia, and secondary hyperalgesia may be more pronounced in women than in men. The evidence to support less efficient endogenous pain inhibitory systems in women is mixed and does not necessarily apply to all pain modalities. With regard to psychological factors, depression may not mediate sex differences in pain perception, while the role of anxiety is ambiguous. Cognitive and social factors appear to partly explain some sex-related differences. Finally, past individual history may be influential in female pain responses. However, these conclusions must be treated with much circumspection for various methodological reasons. Furthermore, some factors/mechanisms remain understudied in the field. There is also a need to assess and improve the ecological validity of findings from laboratory studies on healthy subjects, and perhaps a change of paradigm needs to be considered at this point in time to better understand the factors that influence the experience of women and men who suffer from acute or chronic pain. © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Ghadirian P.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal Crchum Hotel Dieu | Robidoux A.,University of Montreal | Nassif E.,University of Montreal | Martin G.,University of Montreal | And 8 more authors.
Clinical Genetics | Year: 2014

Study subjects were French-Canadian women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or invasive breast cancer (incident or prevalent) who were treated and followed at a single breast cancer clinic affiliated with the Research Center of University of Montreal (CRCHUM), who were either aged less than 50years at diagnosis or who were 50years or older and with at least two affected first- or second-degree relatives. Subjects were tested for six founder mutations (three in BRCA1 and three in BRCA2); 1093 eligible cases were tested. Of these, 56 women (5.1%) were mutation carriers, including 43 BRCA2 carriers and 13 BRCA1 carriers. The prevalence of mutations was 5.3% for unselected women aged 50 and less and was 4.6% for familial cases over age 50. The prevalence of mutations was 3.3% for women with DCIS and was 5.3% for women with invasive cancer. It is rational to offer genetic testing to all French-Canadian women diagnosed recently or in the past with either DCIS or invasive breast cancer before age 50 or with familial breast cancer above age 50. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source


Gutkowska J.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal Crchum Hotel Dieu | Granger J.P.,University of Mississippi Medical Center | Lamarca B.B.,University of Mississippi Medical Center | Danalache B.A.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal Crchum Hotel Dieu | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2011

Objectives: Chronic reduction of uteroplacental perfusion pressure (RUPP) in pregnant rats leads to placental ischemia, maternal endothelial cell dysfunction, hypertension and elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). In this study we investigated the hypothesis that placental ischemia in pregnant rat, a model of preeclampsia, stimulates cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis via a TNF-α-dependent mechanism. Methods: Normal pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats and RUPP rats were evaluated on day 19 of gestation. To test the role of TNF-α in mediating change in the RUPP rat heart, a TNF-α inhibitor, etanercept, was administered on day 18 of gestation at a dose of 0.8 mg/kg, s.c. Results: In comparison to normal pregnant rats, RUPP animals display enlarged cardiomyocytes, microvascular rarefaction, fibrosis, apoptosis as well as increased expression of markers of heart hypertrophy and fibrosis. Etanercept (E) treatment prevented enlargement of cardiomyocytes, fibrosis and apoptosis and this was accompanied by significantly lowered blood pressure in RUPP rats. Etanercept treatment lowered expression of mRNA for brain natriuretic peptide, a marker of cardiac hypertrophy. It also heightened expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and its phosphorylation as well as oxytocin receptor identified in cardiac microvessels. TNF-α inhibition prevented microvascular rarefaction in the heart as indicated by augmented CD31, a marker of angiogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that RUPP leads to microvascular rarefaction in the heart, exaggerated cardiomyocyte size, apoptosis, fibrosis, and the alteration of cardiac gene expression that are modulated by the inflammatory cytokine TNFα. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

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