Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal Crchum Hopital Notre Dame

Montréal, Canada

Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal Crchum Hopital Notre Dame

Montréal, Canada

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Wang X.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal Crchum Hopital Notre Dame | Wu T.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal Crchum Hopital Notre Dame | Wu T.,Zhejiang University | Hu Y.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal Crchum Hopital Notre Dame | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Pno1 is a protein that plays a role in proteasome and ribosome neogenesis in yeast. So far, its functions in mammalian cells have not been investigated. To understand its function in mammals, we performed in situ hybridization analysis of Pno1 expression in different development stages and generated Pno1 gene knockout (KO) and transgenic (Tg) mice lineages. The results showed early lethality of homozygous Pno1 KO lineage caused, as demonstrated in parallel by ex vivo experiments, by arrest of embryo development before compaction stage. Though, heterozygous (HET) mice with 50% of normal Pno1 mRNA concentration were fertile and showed no obvious anomalies. The lymphoid organs of HET mice were normal in size, weight and cellularity, with normal T and B cell subpopulations. TCR-triggered activation and proliferation of HET T cells were normal. Proteasome activities in HET organs were uncompromised. Tg mice with actin promoter-driven Pno1 expression were also fertile, with no apparent anomalies, although they expressed 2-5-fold higher Pno1 mRNA levels. The lymphoid organs of Tg mice were of normal size, weight and cellularity with normal T and B cell sub-populations. TCR-triggered activation and proliferation of Tg T cells were normal. Tg organs and tissues presented normal proteasome activity as did their wild type counterparts. Tagged Pno1 over-expression in L cells and density gradient fractionation established that Pno1 existed in large complexes with sedimentation rates between 20S and 26S, bigger than mature 26S proteasomes. Pno1 in fractions did not coincide with 40S or 60S ribosome subunits. Our study indicates that Pno1 is essential for cellular functions, but only a small percentage of its normal level is sufficient, and excessive amounts are neither harmful nor useful. The nature of the large complexes it associates with remains to be identified, but it is certain that they are not mature proteasomes or ribosomes. © 2012 Wang et al.


PubMed | INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique, Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal Crchum Hopital Notre Dame and University of California at Los Angeles
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

Our earlier study revealed that STRA6 (stimulated by retinoic acid gene 6) was up-regulated within 3 h of TCR stimulation. STRA6 is the high-affinity receptor for plasma retinol-binding protein (RBP) and mediates cellular vitamin A uptake. We generated STRA6 knockout (KO) mice to assess whether such up-regulation was critical for T-cell activation, differentiation and function. STRA6 KO mice under vitamin A sufficient conditions were fertile without apparent anomalies upon visual inspection. The size, cellularity and lymphocyte subpopulations of STRA6 KO thymus and spleen were comparable to those of their wild type (WT) controls. KO and WT T cells were similar in terms of TCR-stimulated proliferation in vitro and homeostatic expansion in vivo. Naive KO CD4 cells differentiated in vitro into Th1, Th2, Th17 as well as regulatory T cells in an analogous manner as their WT counterparts. In vivo experiments revealed that anti-viral immune responses to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in KO mice were comparable to those of WT controls. We also demonstrated that STRA6 KO and WT mice had similar glucose tolerance. Total vitamin A levels are dramatically lower in the eyes of KO mice as compared to those of WT mice, but the levels in other organs were not significantly affected after STRA6 deletion under vitamin A sufficient conditions, indicating that the eye is the mouse organ most sensitive to the loss of STRA6. Our results demonstrate that 1) in vitamin A sufficiency, the deletion of STRA6 in T cells does no affect the T-cell immune responses so-far tested, including those depend on STAT5 signaling; 2) STRA6-independent vitamin A uptake compensated the lack of STRA6 in lymphoid organs under vitamin A sufficient conditions in mice; 3) STRA6 is critical for vitamin A uptake in the eyes even in vitamin A sufficiency.


PubMed | São Paulo State University, Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal Crchum Hopital Notre Dame and University of Montréal
Type: | Journal: Journal of cellular biochemistry | Year: 2016

Protandim and 6-gingerol, two potent nutraceuticals, have been shown to decrease free radicals production through enhancing endogenous antioxidant enzymes. In this study, we evaluated the effects of these products on the expression of different factors involved in osteoarthritis (OA) process. Human OA chondrocytes were treated with 1ng/ml IL-1 in the presence or absence of protandim (0-10g/ml) or 6-gingerol (0-10M). OA was induced surgically in mice by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM). The animals were treated weekly with an intraarticular injection of 10l of vehicle or protandim (10g/ml) for 8 weeks. Sham-operated mice served as controls. In vitro, we demonstrated that protandim and 6-gingerol preserve cell viability and mitochondrial metabolism and prevented 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE)-induced cell mortality. They activated Nrf2 transcription factor, abolished IL-1-induced NO, PGE


Jin W.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal Crchum Hopital Notre Dame | Luo H.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal Crchum Hopital Notre Dame | Wu J.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal Crchum Hopital Notre Dame
Molecular Immunology | Year: 2014

The Eph kinase (EPH) and ephrin (EFN) families are involved in a broad range of developmental processes. Increasing evidence is demonstrating the important roles of EPHBs and EphrinBs in the immune system. In this study on epithelial cell-specific Ephb4 knockout (KO) mice, we investigated T-cell development and function after EPHB4 deletion. KO mice presented normal thymic weight and cellularity. Their thymocyte subpopulation percentages were in the normal range. KO mice had normal T-cell numbers and percentages in the spleen, and T cells were activated and proliferated normally upon TCR ligation. Furthermore, naïve spleen CD4 cells from KO and wild type mice were capable of differentiating, in a comparable manner, into Th1, Th17 and Treg cells. In vivo, KO mice mounted effective delayed type hypersensitivity responses, indicating that thymocytes develop normally in the absence of TEC EPHB4, and T cells derived from EPHB4-deleted thymic epithelian cells (TEC) have normal function. Our data suggest that heavy redundancy and promiscuous interaction between EPHs and EFNs compensate for the missing EPHB4 in TECs, and TEC EPHB4's role in T cell development might only be revealed if multiple EPHs are ablated simultaneously. We cannot exclude the possibility that (1) some immunological parameters not examined in this study are affected by the deletion; (2) the deletion is not complete due to the leaky Cre-LoxP system, and the remaining EPHB4 in TEC is sufficient for thymocyte development; or (3) EPHB4 expression in TEC is not required for T cell development and function. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal Crchum Hopital Notre Dame
Type: Journal Article | Journal: FEBS letters | Year: 2010

Ran (Ras-related nuclear protein), a Ras family GTPase, is involved in multiple cellular functions, including the regulation of DNA replication, cell cycle progression, nuclear structure formation, RNA processing-exportation, and nuclear protein importation. Ran(+/-) embryonic stem (ES) cells were produced in an attempt to generate Ran null mutant mice. Even after an extremely large number of blastocyst injections, no Ran(+/-) chimeric mice could be generated. Ran(+/-) ES cell-derived fibroblasts showed reduced Ran protein expression, and manifested augmented nuclear abundance of AP-1 factors (c-Jun and c-Fos) upon cytokine stimulation. Our experiments demonstrated that intracellular Ran protein levels controlled the nuclear presence of certain transcription factors, such as c-Fos and c-Jun.


PubMed | Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal Crchum Hopital Notre Dame
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular immunology | Year: 2014

The Eph kinase (EPH) and ephrin (EFN) families are involved in a broad range of developmental processes. Increasing evidence is demonstrating the important roles of EPHBs and EphrinBs in the immune system. In this study on epithelial cell-specific Ephb4 knockout (KO) mice, we investigated T-cell development and function after EPHB4 deletion. KO mice presented normal thymic weight and cellularity. Their thymocyte subpopulation percentages were in the normal range. KO mice had normal T-cell numbers and percentages in the spleen, and T cells were activated and proliferated normally upon TCR ligation. Furthermore, nave spleen CD4 cells from KO and wild type mice were capable of differentiating, in a comparable manner, into Th1, Th17 and Treg cells. In vivo, KO mice mounted effective delayed type hypersensitivity responses, indicating that thymocytes develop normally in the absence of TEC EPHB4, and T cells derived from EPHB4-deleted thymic epithelian cells (TEC) have normal function. Our data suggest that heavy redundancy and promiscuous interaction between EPHs and EFNs compensate for the missing EPHB4 in TECs, and TEC EPHB4s role in T cell development might only be revealed if multiple EPHs are ablated simultaneously. We cannot exclude the possibility that (1) some immunological parameters not examined in this study are affected by the deletion; (2) the deletion is not complete due to the leaky Cre-LoxP system, and the remaining EPHB4 in TEC is sufficient for thymocyte development; or (3) EPHB4 expression in TEC is not required for T cell development and function.


PubMed | Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal Crchum Hopital Notre Dame
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2013

Myeloid leukemia factor 1-interacting protein (MLF1-IP) has been found to exert functions in mitosis, although studies have been conducted only in cell lines up to now. To understand its roles during ontogeny and immunity, we analyzed its mRNA expression pattern by in situ hybridization and generated MLF1-IP gene knockout (KO) mice. MLF1-IP was expressed at elevated levels in most rudimentary tissues during the mid-gestation stage, between embryonic day 9.5 (e9.5) and e15.5. It declined afterwards in these tissues, but was very high in the testes and ovaries in adulthood. At post-natal day 10 (p10), the retina and cerebellum still expressed moderate MLF1-IP levels, although these tissues do not contain fast-proliferating cells at this stage. MLF1-IP expression in lymphoid organs, such as the thymus, lymph nodes, spleen and bone marrow, was high between e15.5 and p10, and decreased in adulthood. MLF1-IP KO embryos failed to develop beyond e6.5. On the other hand, MLF1-IP(+/-) mice were alive and fertile, with no obvious anomalies. Lymphoid organ size, weight, cellularity and cell sub-populations in MLF1-IP(+/-) mice were in the normal range. The functions of MLF1-IP(+/-) T cells and nave CD4 cells, in terms of TCR-stimulated proliferation and Th1, Th17 and Treg cell differentiation in vitro, were comparable to those of wild type T cells. Our study demonstrates that MLF1-IP performs unique functions during mouse embryonic development, particularly around e6.5, when there was degeneration of epiblasts. However, the cells could proliferate dozens of rounds without MLF1-IP. MLF1-IP expression at about 50% of its normal level is sufficient to sustain mice life and the development of their immune system without apparent abnormalities. Our results also raise an intriguing question that MLF1-IP might have additional functions unrelated to cell proliferation.

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