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Mogollon J.A.,University of Quebec | Bujold E.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Laval Chul Chuq | Lemieux S.,Laval University | Bourdages M.,Laval University | And 6 more authors.
Nutrition Journal | Year: 2013

Background: Several randomized clinical trials (RCTs) indicate that flavanol-rich chocolate has beneficial effects on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and blood pressure (BP). However, no RCTs have evaluated these outcomes in pregnant women. The objective of this 2-group, parallel, double-blind RCT was to examine the effects of flavanol-rich chocolate on FMD and BP in pregnant women with normal BP. Methods. Forty-four healthy, pregnant women were randomized to the high-flavanol (n = 23) or low-flavanol (n = 21) chocolate consumption for 12 weeks. At randomization (0, 60, 120 and 180 min after a single 40-g dose of chocolate), 6 and 12 weeks after daily 20-g chocolate intake, we evaluated plasma concentrations of flavanols and theobromine, as well as the FMD and BP. Results: Plasma epicatechin was significantly increased (p < 0.001) 180 min after the consumption of 40-g high-flavanol chocolate compared to low-flavanol chocolate. Theobromine concentrations were significantly higher 180 min and 12 weeks after the intake of experimental chocolate or low-flavanol chocolate (p < 0.001). FMD was not different between the 2 groups at all pre-defined time periods. No other significant within-group or between-group changes were observed. Conclusion: These results confirm the feasibility of a large-scale RCT comparing daily consumption of flavanol-rich chocolate to an equivalent placebo during pregnancy and demonstrate higher plasma epicatechin and theobromine concentration in the intervention group after acute ingestion. © 2013 Mogollon et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Lucas M.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Laval Chul Chuq | Kirmayer L.J.,McGill University | Dery S.,Laval University | Dewailly E.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Laval Chul Chuq | Dewailly E.,Laval University
Journal of the American College of Nutrition | Year: 2010

Objective: A decrease in omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) and an increase in omega-6 (n-6) linoleic acid in the diet have been suggested as contributing factors in the pathogenesis of depression. The present study examined the relationship between red blood cell (RBC) n-3 and n-6 and serious psychological distress (SPD). Methods: The authors analyzed data on 746 Inuit adults who took part in the 2004 Nunavik Inuit Health Survey. Fatty acids were quantified in RBC membranes. Psychological distress was measured by the Kessler 6-Item Scale (K6), a brief screening instrument for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fourth edition) mood disorders in the past 30 days. A score ≥13 on the K6 has been established as a threshold to differentiate cases of SPD from noncases. Statistical Analysis: The risk of SPD according to RBC n-3 and n-6 was assessed by logistic regression analysis. Weighted estimates were calculated by the SUDAAN statistical package to account for the complex survey design. Results: The 30-day prevalence rate of SPD was 12.4%. In SPD cases, mean n-3 LC-PUFAs were lower (7.81% ± 0.24% [SEM] vs. 9.24% ± 0.12%, p < 0.0001) and mean total n-6 was higher (27.3% ± 0.36% vs. 25.9% ± 0.15%, p = 0.0003) than in noncases. For each 1% increase in RBC n-3 LC-PUFA, the odds ratio for SPD was 0.90 (95% confidence interval: 0.83, 0.99; p = 0.0248). However, neither individual n-6 FAs nor total n-6 was significantly associated (p ≥ 0.05) with SPD in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: In this study, the authors observed that n-3 LC-PUFAs in RBCs were inversely associated with SPD. The study's cross-sectional design implies that one cannot ascertain any causal relationship. The findings suggest that n-3 LC-PUFA consumption from the traditional Inuit diet deserves prospective analyses. Source

Lucas M.,Laval University | Lucas M.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Laval Chul Chuq | Asselin G.,Laval University | Plourde M.,Universite de Sherbrooke | And 4 more authors.
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2010

Objective: To quantify marine food product consumption and EPA + DHA intake among Quebecers, and to compare the results with the most recent recommendations.Design Data were obtained from a representative cross-sectional telephone survey (June 2006). Intakes of marine food product species and EPA + DHA were estimated from a validated FFQ on the consumption of marine food products during the previous month. Prevalence of fish oil consumption in the last 6 months was also assessed.Setting Province of Quebec (Canada).Subjects A representative sample (n 1001) of adults in the province of Quebec. Of these, eight were excluded from the present analysis (n 993).Results: Mean and median EPA + DHA intakes for all participants were estimated to be 291 mg/d (sem 11) and 207 mg/d, respectively. 85.0% (95% CI 82.7, 87.3) of Quebecers had an EPA + DHA intake lower than 500 mg/d, which is the amount internationally recommended for the prevention of CVD. Mean and median DHA intakes among women of childbearing age (n 128, 18-34 years) were estimated to be 169 mg/d (sem 17) and 126 mg/d, respectively. Of these women, 27.7% had a daily intake >200 mg DHA and 15.9% had an intake >300 mg DHA. We noted that 13% of Quebecers take 1 capsule of fish oil/d.Conclusions: Consumption of marine food products and EPA + DHA among Quebecers clearly appears to be lower than international recommendations. Since EPA + DHA confer health benefits and may reduce health costs, strategies to increase their consumption should be implemented to improve public health in Quebec. Source

Lucas M.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Laval Chul Chuq | Proust F.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Laval Chul Chuq | Blanchet C.,National Institute of Quebec Public Health | Ferland A.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Laval Chul Chuq | And 5 more authors.
Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids | Year: 2010

Here we determined the relationship between red blood cell (RBC) omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) and usual dietary marine food product intake among 630 Nunavik Inuit adults. Marine food product intake was determined by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and fatty acids were quantified in RBC membranes. Multiple linear regression was undertaken to determine the relationship between marine food product inatke and RBC n-3 LC-PUFAs (dependent variable). Mean RBC n-3 LC-PUFA level was 9.16±0.11% [SEM]. The highest correlations noted with RBC n-3 LC-PUFAs were for marine mammal fat (rs=0.41, P<0.0001) and fish (rs=0.35, P<0.0001). Age, total marine mammal fat and fish intakes were the variables that contributed the most to predicted RBC n-3 LC-PUFAs and explained 34%, 15% and 5%, respectively, of its variances. Our study indicates that marine mammal fat intake is more important than fish in accounting for RBC n-3 LC-PUFA levels among the Nunavik Inuit. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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