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Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Kaba M.,Jean Moulin University Lyon 3 | Colson P.,Jean Moulin University Lyon 3 | Musongela J.-P.,Programme National de lHygiene aux Frontieres PNHF | Tshilolo L.,Center Hospitalier Monkole | And 2 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2010

Autochthonous hepatitis E is an emerging disease in industrialized countries where a growing body of data indicates that pigs represent a reservoir for hepatitis E virus (HEV) of genotype 3 or 4. In Africa, only HEV genotypes 1 and 2 have been identified in hepatitis E outbreaks as well as in sporadic cases. We aimed to investigate whether commercial pigs in sub-Saharan Africa might represent an HEV reservoir using molecular assays. Faecal samples from 40 pigs of the Pietrain race housed in a farm in Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of the Congo) were tested using in-house real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and sequencing assays. HEV RNA was detected in faeces of one (2.5%) pig, and the HEV sequence obtained from this pig was classified genotype 3c, and was genetically related to human HEV sequences from France (89-92% nucleotide similarity) and pig HEV sequences from The Netherlands (88-91% nucleotide similarity). Epidemiological investigations revealed that Kinshasa farm pigs tested in the present study are descendants of pigs imported from Belgium in 2002, suggesting that pig HEV genotype 3c recovered in our study may have been imported from Belgium to Democratic Republic of the Congo. Our findings, although needing to be confirmed in further studies, also suggest that pigs in sub-Saharan Africa may be an HEV reservoir. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Amisi C.,Center Hospitalier Monkole | Mputu L.,Cliniques Universitaires Of Kinshasa | Mboloko E.,Cliniques Universitaires Of Kinshasa | Bieleli E.,Cliniques Universitaires Of Kinshasa | Pozzili P.,Biomedical University of Rome
Gynecologie Obstetrique Fertilite | Year: 2013

Objectives Metabolic features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have been poorly investigated in African women where environmental factors are different from those occurring in developed countries. This study aimed to determine the frequency and features of insulin resistance (IR) in Congolese women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Patients and methods This was a case-control study conducted in women received in three hospital institutions in Kinshasa from 2006-2007. Blood samples were taken to measure HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting insulin and glucose levels, and the homeostatic model (HOMA-IR) was used to assess IR under basal conditions. Results Fifty-five Congolese women with PCOS and forty-four normal women (mean age 24 ± 6.8 years) were included in the study. Although body mass index was not statistically different between PCOS and control women, IR evaluated by the HOMA-IR was detected in 39.3% of PCOS women. Fasting insulin level was the most significant determinant of IR in the Congolese women with PCOS (OR 2.134 [1.360-3.348]; P < 0.001). Conclusions Nearly one in two women from Congo affected by PCOS is IR and this feature is independent of overweight and central fat distribution. HOMA-IR is the most suitable index than the clinical parameters for detecting IR in these women.

Tshilolo L.,Center Hospitalier Monkole | Summa V.,Biomedical University of Rome | Gregorj C.,Biomedical University of Rome | Kinsiama C.,Center Hospitalier Monkole | And 3 more authors.
Anemia | Year: 2012

High HbF levels and F cells are correlated with reduced morbidity and mortality in sickle cell disease (SCD). This paper was designed to determine the HbF and F cells levels in Congolese sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients in order to determine their impact on the expression of SCD. Population and Method. HbF levels were measured in 89 SCA patients (mean age 11.4 yrs) using a standard HPLC method. F cell quantitation was done in a second group of SCA patients (n = 42, mean age 8.9 yrs) and compared with a control group (n = 47, mean age 5 yrs). F cells were quantified by a cytofluorometric system (MoAb-HbF - FITC; cut off at 0.5%). Results. The mean value of HbF was 7.2% ± 5.0 with heterogeneous distribution, most patients (76%) having HbF < 8%. Mean values of F-cells in SCA patients and control group were 5.4% ± 7.6 (median: 2.19%; range 0,0-30,3%) and 0.5% ± 1.6 (median 0.0, range 0-5.18), respectively. SCA patients with F cells >4.5% developed less painful crisis and had higher percentage of reticulocytes. Conclusion. Congolese SCA patients displayed low levels of HbF and F-cells that contribute to the severity of SCD. © 2012 L. Tshilolo et al.

Musumari P.M.,Kyoto University | Wouters E.,University of Antwerp | Kayembe P.K.,University of Kinshasa | Nzita M.K.,University of Kinshasa | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: Food insecurity is increasingly reported as an important barrier of patient adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in both resource-poor and rich settings. However, unlike in resource rich-settings, very few quantitative studies to date have investigated the association of food insecurity with patient adherence to ART in Sub-Saharan Africa. The current study examines the association between food insecurity and adherence to ART among HIV-infected adults in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Methods and Findings: This is a cross-sectional quantitative study of patients receiving ART at three private and one public health facilities in Kinshasa, DRC. Participants were consecutively recruited into the study between April and November 2012. Adherence was measured using a combined method coupling pharmacy refill and self-reported adherence. Food insecurity was the primary predictor, and was assessed using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). Of the 898 participants recruited into the study, 512 (57%) were food insecure, and 188 (20.9%) were not adherent to ART. Food insecurity was significantly associated with non-adherence to ART (AOR, 2.06; CI, 1.38-3.09). We also found that perceived harmfulness of ART and psychological distress were associated respectively with increased (AOR, 1.95; CI, 1.15-3.32) and decreased (AOR, 0.31; CI, 0.11-0.83) odds of non-adherence to ART. Conclusion: Food insecurity is prevalent and a significant risk factor for non-adherence to ART among HIV-infected individuals in the DRC. Our findings highlight the urgent need for strategies to improve food access among HIV-infected on ART in order to ensure patient adherence to ART and ultimately the long-term success of HIV treatment in Sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright: © 2014 Musumari et al.

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