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Lapostolle F.,AP HP | Lapostolle F.,University of Paris 13 | Sebbah J.L.,Center Hospitalier Of Gonesse | Couvreur J.,Center Hospitalier Intercommunal | And 10 more authors.
Critical Care

Introduction: Hypothermia is common in trauma victims and is associated with an increase in mortality. Its causes are not well understood. Our objective was to identify the factors influencing the onset of hypothermia during pre-hospital care of trauma victims.Methods: This was a multicenter, prospective, open, observational study in a pre-hospital setting.The subjects were trauma victims, over 18 years old, receiving care from emergency medical services (EMS) and transported to hospital in a medically staffed mobile unit.Study variables included: demographics and morphological traits, nature and circumstances of the accident, victim's presentation (trapped, seated or lying down, on the ground, unclothed, wet or covered by a blanket), environmental conditions (wind, rain, ground temperature and air temperature on site and in the mobile unit), clinical factors, Revised Trauma Score (RTS), tympanic temperature, care provided (including warming, drugs administered, infusion fluid temperature and volume), and EMS and hospital arrival times.Results: A total of 448 patients were included. Hypothermia (<35°C) on hospital arrival was present in 64/448 patients (14%). Significant factors associated with the absence of hypothermia in a multivariate analysis were no intubation: Odds Ratio: 4.23 (95% confidence interval 1.62 to 1.02); RTS: 1.68 (1.29 to 2.20); mobile unit temperature: 1.20 (1.04 to 1.38); infusion fluid temperature: 1.17 (1.05 to 1.30); patient not unclothed: 0.40 (0.18 to 0.90); and no head injury: 0.36 (0.16 to 0.83).Conclusions: The key risk factor for the onset of hypothermia was the severity of injury but environmental conditions and the medical care provided by EMS were also significant factors. Changes in practice could help reduce the impact of factors such as infusion fluid temperature and mobile unit temperature. © 2012 Lapostolle et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Musset L.,Center National Of Reference Du Paludisme Region Antilles Guyane | Pelleau S.,Center National Of Reference Du Paludisme Region Antilles Guyane | Girod R.,Institute Pasteur Of La Guyane | Ardillon V.,Cellule Of Linstitut Of Veille Sanitaire En Region Antilles Guyane | And 5 more authors.
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

In a climate of growing concern that Plasmodium falciparum may be developing a drug resistance to artemisinin derivatives in the Guiana Shield, this review details our current knowledge of malaria and control strategy in one part of the Shield, French Guiana. Local epidemiology, test-treat-track strategy, the state of parasite drug resistance and vector control measures are summarised. Current issues in terms of mobile populations and legislative limitations are also discussed. Source

Revest M.,Pontchaillou University Hospital | Egmann G.,Center hospitalier Andree Rosemon | Cattoir V.,Pontchaillou University Hospital | Tattevin P.,Pontchaillou University Hospital
Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy

The HACEK group of bacteria – Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Aggregatibacter spp. (A. actinomycetemcomitans, A. aphrophilus, A. paraphrophilus, and A. segnis), Cardiobacterium spp. (C. hominis, C. valvarum), Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella spp. (K. kingae, K. denitrificans) – are fastidious gram-negative bacteria, part of the normal microbiota of oral and upper respiratory tract in humans. Although their pathogenicity is limited, they are responsible for 1-3% of all infective endocarditis. HACEK endocarditis mostly affect patients with underlying heart disease or prosthetic valves, and are characterized by an insidious course, with a mean diagnosis delay of 1 month (Haemophilus spp.) to 3 months (Aggregatibacter and Cardiobacterium spp.). The advent of continuously monitored blood culture systems with enriched media has erased the need for extended incubation for the diagnosis of HACEK endocarditis. Medical treatment relies on third-generation cephalosporin, with a favorable outcome in 80-90% of cases, with or without cardiac surgery. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group Source

Epelboin L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Epelboin L.,University of the French West Indies and Guiana | Boulle C.,Montpellier University | Ouar-Epelboin S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 8 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

Background:Dengue and malaria are two major public health concerns in tropical settings. Although the pathogeneses of these two arthropod-borne diseases differ, their clinical and biological presentations are unspecific. During dengue epidemics, several hundred patients with fever and diffuse pain are weekly admitted at the emergency room. It is difficult to discriminate them from patients presenting malaria attacks. Furthermore, it may be impossible to provide a parasitological microscopic examination for all patients. This study aimed to establish a diagnostic algorithm for communities where dengue fever and malaria occur at some frequency in adults.Methodology/Principal Findings:A sub-study using the control groups of a case-control study in French Guiana - originally designed to compare dengue and malaria co-infected cases to single infected cases - was performed between 2004 and 2010. In brief, 208 patients with malaria matched to 208 patients with dengue fever were compared in the present study. A predictive score of malaria versus dengue was established using. 632 bootstrap procedures. Multivariate analysis showed that male gender, age, tachycardia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and CRP>5 mg/l were independently associated with malaria. The predictive score using those variables had an AUC of 0.86 (95%CI: 0.82-0.89), and the CRP was the preponderant predictive factor. The sensitivity and specificity of CRP>5 mg/L to discriminate malaria from dengue were of 0.995 (95%CI: 0.991-1) and 0.35 (95%CI 0.32-0.39), respectively.Conclusions/Significance:The clinical and biological score performed relatively well for discriminating cases of dengue versus malaria. Moreover, using only the CRP level turned to be a useful biomarker to discriminate feverish patients at low risk of malaria in an area where both infections exist. It would avoid more than 33% of unnecessary parasitological examinations with a very low risk of missing a malaria attack. © 2013 Epelboin et al. Source

Guiguet M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Guiguet M.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Ghosn J.,AP HP | Ghosn J.,University of Paris Descartes | And 11 more authors.

Objectives: We aimed to determine the effectiveness of boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy (BPIMT) initiated as a maintenance strategy in routine care and identify predictive factors of failure. Design: Observational study in the FHDH-ANRS CO4 cohort. Methods: Five hundred and twenty-nine virologically suppressed individuals switched to BPIMT in the period 2006-2010, 75% had at least 12 and 49% at least 24 months of follow-up. Virological failure (two consecutive HIV-RNA > 50 copies/ml or one HIV-RNA > 50 copies/ml followed by BPIMT discontinuation) and treatment failure (virological failure, antiretroviral reintensification or death) were analysed separately. Results: At baseline, 11% were protease inhibitor-naive, median duration on combined antiretroviral therapy was 84 months and median duration of suppressed viremia was 38 months. Nine percent had a history of virological failure, while on a protease inhibitor-containing regimen, and rates of virological failure were higher among those individuals [adjusted hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.9-2.9]. Compared to individuals with less than 1 year of sustained virological suppression before the switch to BPIMT, those with longer duration were less likely to experience virological failure [hazard ratio, 0.7; (95% CI, 0.4-1.2) and 0.6 (95%CI, 0.4-0.9)] for a duration of 12-23 months and 24 months or more, respectively. Rates of failure were similar for BPIMT with lopinavir-ritonavir (RTV) or darunavir-RTV, but increased for BPIMT with atazanavir-RTV. Same risk factors were associated with treatment failure. Conclusion: The safety and efficacy of a maintenance strategy with BPIMT in a routine care setting matched the results of randomized clinical trials. A longer duration since last virological rebound before switching to BPIMT was associated with a decreased risk of subsequent failure. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

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