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Pyter L.M.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Pyter L.M.,Center for Wound Healing and Tissue Regeneration | Yang L.,Sun Yat Sen University | McKenzie C.,University of Illinois at Chicago | And 5 more authors.
Stress | Year: 2014

Stress modulates vital aspects of immune functioning in both human and non-human animals, including tissue repair. For example, dermal wounds heal more slowly and are associated with prolonged inflammation and increased bacterial load in mice that experience chronic physical restraint. Social stressors also negatively affect healing; however, previous studies suggest that the affected healing mechanisms may be stress model-specific. Here, the effects of either social isolation or physical restraint on dermal wound healing (3.5mm wounds on the dorsum) were compared in hairless male mice. Social isolation beginning 3 weeks prior to wounding delayed healing comparably to physical restraint (12h/day for eight days), in spite of marked differences in metabolic and hormonal consequences (i.e. body mass) between the two stress models. Additionally, isolated mice exhibited reductions in wound bacterial load and inflammatory gene expression (interleukin-1beta [IL-1β], monocyte chemoattractant protein [MCP]), whereas restraint significantly increased both of these parameters relative to controls. Experimentally augmenting bacterial concentrations in wounds of isolated mice did not ameliorate healing, whereas this treatment accelerated healing in controls. This work indicates that social isolation and restraint stressors comparably impair healing, but do so through disparate mechanisms and at different phases of healing. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.

Koh T.J.,Center for Wound Healing and Tissue Regeneration
Expert reviews in molecular medicine | Year: 2011

The macrophage is a prominent inflammatory cell in wounds, but its role in healing remains incompletely understood. Macrophages have many functions in wounds, including host defence, the promotion and resolution of inflammation, the removal of apoptotic cells, and the support of cell proliferation and tissue restoration following injury. Recent studies suggest that macrophages exist in several different phenotypic states within the healing wound and that the influence of these cells on each stage of repair varies with the specific phenotype. Although the macrophage is beneficial to the repair of normally healing wounds, this pleotropic cell type may promote excessive inflammation or fibrosis under certain circumstances. Emerging evidence suggests that macrophage dysfunction is a component of the pathogenesis of nonhealing and poorly healing wounds. As a result of advances in the understanding of this multifunctional cell, the macrophage continues to be an attractive therapeutic target, both to reduce fibrosis and scarring, and to improve healing of chronic wounds.

Pyter L.M.,University of Chicago | Pyter L.M.,Center for Wound Healing and Tissue Regeneration | El Mouatassim Bih S.,University of Chicago | Sattar H.,University of Chicago | Prendergast B.J.,University of Chicago
Brain Research | Year: 2014

Cancer is associated with an increased prevalence of depression. Peripheral tumors induce inflammatory cytokine production in the brain and depressive-like behaviors. Mounting evidence indicates that cytokines are part of a pathway by which peripheral inflammation causes depression. Neuroinflammatory responses to immune challenges can be exacerbated (primed) by prior immunological activation associated with aging, early-life infection, and drug exposure. This experiment tested the hypothesis that peripheral tumors likewise induce neuroinflammatory sensitization or priming. Female rats with chemically-induced mammary carcinomas were injected with either saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 250 μg/kg; i.p.), and expression of mRNAs involved in the pathway linking inflammation and depression (interleukin-1beta [Il-1β], CD11b, IκBα, indolamine 2,3-deoxygenase [Ido]) was quantified by qPCR in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and frontal cortex, 4 or 24 h post-treatment. In the absence of LPS, hippocampal Il-1β and CD11b mRNA expression were elevated in tumor-bearing rats, whereas Ido expression was reduced. Moreover, in saline-treated rats basal hypothalamic Il-1β and CD11b expression were positively correlated with tumor weight; heavier tumors, in turn, were characterized by more inflammatory, necrotic, and granulation tissue. Tumors exacerbated CNS proinflammatory gene expression in response to LPS: CD11b was greater in hippocampus and frontal cortex of tumor-bearing relative to tumor-free rats, IκBα was greater in hippocampus, and Ido was greater in hypothalamus. Greater neuroinflammatory responses in tumor-bearing rats were accompanied by attenuated body weight gain post-LPS. The data indicate that neuroinflammatory pathways are potentiated, or primed, in tumor-bearing rats, which may exacerbate future negative behavioral consequences. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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