PubMed | Psychology., Center for Womens Mental Health and Neuroscience and Psychiatry Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Behavioral neuroscience | Year: 2016
Increasing evidence suggests that discrete neural networks that mediate emotion processing are activated when mothers respond to infants images or cries. Accumulating data also indicate that natural variation in maternal caregiving behavior is related to maternal oxytocin (OT) levels. However, brain activation to infant cues has not been studied comparing mothers at disparate ends of the maternal sensitivity spectrum. Based on observed mother-infant play interaction at 4-6 months postpartum in 80 antenatally recruited mothers, 15 mothers with the highest sensitivity (HSMs) and 15 mothers with the lowest sensitivity (LSMs) were followed at 7-9 months using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain responses to viewing videos of their own versus an unknown infant in 3 affect states (neutral, happy, and sad). Plasma OT measurements were taken from mothers following play interactions with their infant. Compared with LSMs, HSMs showed significantly greater brain activation in right superior temporal gyrus (STG) in response to own versus unknown neutral infant and to own happy versus neutral control. Changes in brain activation were significantly negatively correlated with plasma OT responses in HSMs mothers. Conversely, compared with HSMs, LSMs showed no significant activation difference in response to own infant separately or in contrast to unknown infant. Activation of STG may index sensitive maternal response to own infant stimuli. Sensitive parenting may have its unique profile in relation to brain responses which can act as biomarkers for future intervention studies that enhance sensitivity of maternal care. (PsycINFO Database Record
Psaros C.,Center for Womens Mental Health |
Psaros C.,Massachusetts General Hospital |
Psaros C.,Harvard University |
Freeman M.,Center for Womens Mental Health |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology | Year: 2014
BACKGROUND: Many women discontinue antidepressants (ADs) when trying to conceive, although risk of depressive relapse is high. We examined the feasibility and potential clinical effect of cognitive behavioral therapy for the prevention of recurrence (CBT-PR) for women with a history of recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) who planned to discontinue maintenance AD treatment for pregnancy. METHODS: This was an open preliminary study of CBT-PR in women (N = 12) planning or early in pregnancy with remitted MDD on maintenance ADs with a plan to discontinue ADs for pregnancy. Participants received 12 sessions of CBT-PR during the acute phase and optional monthly booster sessions during follow-up. Participants were assessed monthly during the acute phase and then twice additionally during follow-up by an independent rater using mood scales (depression module of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale); pregnancy status was also assessed. RESULTS: Over the 24 weeks of the trial, 75% (n = 9) of participants did not restart ADs and did not relapse to depression. Of the 3 who reintroduced AD, 2 experienced a depressive relapse, whereas one did not meet full criteria for MDD. Adherence to the intervention was very good with all participants completing all therapy sessions and assessments. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive behavioral therapy for the prevention of recurrence seems feasible and may provide protection for women with recurrent depression on ADs who discontinue their medication while trying to conceive. The extent to which euthymia is sustainable with CBT-PR requires further study; the results of which may broaden treatment choices for women in anticipation of and during pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.